List of Abstracts

Subtrack: CA - Antenna, RF, Microwave & Communication System

CA-01: Design of Branch-line Coupler at 15GHz for 5G Wireless Communication
Student: Abdul Mukhlis Pakharuddin, Supervisor: Dr Nurhudah binti Seman

A branch-line coupler is one of the main components in the feeding network architecture for antenna arrays of wireless communication, such in the future wireless technologies of fifth generation (5G). Hence, a 3dB branch-line coupler is designed to operate at 15GHz. This operating frequency is chosen by referring to the report by the Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM), which state 15GHz as one of the candidates for the 5G spectrum frequency above 6GHz. The designed coupler has its input power to be equally divided between two output ports with 90° phase difference. The presented design is realized in microstrip planar. Furthermore, technique of optimal chamfering is implemented at the bending section of ports’ transmission lines in order to maintain the good performance with less power loss. The design is simulated and optimized using Computer System Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The obtained results show good performance at 15GHz with S11 and S41 are lower than -10dB and outputs at Port 2 and 3 presented by S21 and S31 are almost 3dB. While, the phase difference between Port 2 and 3 is to 90°.

CA-02: Multilayer Reflectarray Antenna (MRA)
Student: Abdul Qahhar Suhailee, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Fairus bin Mohd Yusoff

This project is about to develop high directivity of antenna which is multilayer reflectarray antenna (MRA). This project proposes the characteristic of the single unit cell phase range using multilayer patch. This project is done by using CST Studio Suite. From the analysis, the multiple resonance structure will produce a phase range exceeding 360° and thus increase the antenna bandwidth. The antenna is design to operate at 5GHz. From the simulation, a phase range of 309.4° has been obtained for dual layer unit cell. Finally, the complete MRA antenna is design and simulate.

CA-03: L Shape Dielectric Resonator Antenna with 2 Port for LTE Band
Student: Ahmad Farid Asyraf Ahmad Suhaimi, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Haizal bin Jamaludin

This study introduces a Two Port Dielectric Resonator Antenna as another type of antenna. The material used is dielectric which consists of several qualities such as higher gain, more efficient, low loss dielectric material, less cost, availability of various shapes and smaller compared to microstrip antenna. The study is based on the design a several shape of the Dielectric Resonator Antenna with suitable method to cater LTE standard operating frequency at 2.6 GHz . The antenna design use an Fr-4 board with substrate permittivity εr=15, thickness of 1.6mm and Dielectric Resonator Antenna with relative permittivity at 15. The proposed shape are selected from several type design which had the best performance in term of bandwidth, efficiency, higher gain and are able to cover LTE band number 7 (UMTS 7) at frequency of 2.6 GHz with uplink (2500 MHz – 2570M Hz) and downlink (2620 MHz – 2690 MHz) using FDD mode. Thus, L shaped antenna design was proposed due to it has good efficiency, small return loss and better bandwidth. The simulation and design of the antenna was done by using CST microwave studio at operating frequency of 2.6 GHz. Simulation and measurement of fabricated antenna was compared and analyse.

CA-04: Simultaneously Refractive Index (RI) and Temperature Sensor Based on Reflection Configuration using Fiber-Bragg Grating FBG
Student: Jonathan Matius, Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Yusof bin Mohd Noor

Fiber-optics sensor has geared towards the development of optical fiber simultaneously refractive-index (RI) and Temperature sensors, such as epoxy resin-based interferometer and Double-Pass M-Z Interferometer with a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). However, the cost of designing and fabricating the sensors is expensive due to the complicated design. Therefore, simultaneously reflective RI and Temperature sensor is study to reduce the complexity at the same time reduce the cost of fabricating the sensors since RI and Temperature sensing being increasingly applied in various applications. The head sensor consists of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) written on single-mode fiber (SMF) with a flat cleaved on fiber-end. The performance measurement is analysed using optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The FBG acts as the temperature sensor while the flat cleaved of fiber-end surface of the FBG-SMF acts as the RI sensor. This will enable the head sensor to simultaneously measure the liquid refractive-index and temperature.

CA-05: Design and Development of GSM Omnidirectional Antenna
Student: Muhamad Nurakmal Hakim, Supervisor: Dr Noor Asniza binti Murad

This work proposed an omnidirectional coaxial collinear microstrip antenna array that can cover the GSM frequency from 0.86GHz to 2.2GHz with high gain for external advertising system in moving vehicle. The antenna is chosen above other antennas as it possess high gain properties in such to accommodate on moving communication such as taxis fleet advertising system. The system may not work well on low gain internal antenna and causes instability while the vehicles are on the move. The antenna is designed using basic equations available in literature before modification is made. The antenna array method can increase the antenna gain more than -5dBi and produce a large wideband that cover GSM mobile bandwidth. The convergence is achieved by making an antenna array with slotted ground to enhance the bandwidth. The gain of the antenna can be increase or decrease depends on the length of the antenna and the radiation of antenna is affected by the width of the patch antenna. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a CST simulation is done. The superiority of the proposed method is confirmed by 30% increase of the antenna bandwidth at the centered frequency (1.53GHz) at return loss (S11) <-10dB. In overall, the antenna can be used for communication system on moving vehicles.

CA-06: Reconfigurable Plasma Antenna Operate at 2.4 GHz
Student: Muhamad Radzi Sulaiman, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Haizal bin Jamaludin

The need of high speed data transfer have lead to numerous installation of antennas. This metal antennas need extra cost to reconfigure it as the design made them to be mechanically reconfigure. The plasma based reconfigurable antenna is introduced to reconfigure the antenna electrically to fulfill the user needs. The design used compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as the reflector and monopole antenna as the radiator to be operate at 2.4GHz. Plasma can act as conductor by fully ionized or partially ionized. This design is possible as the plasma offer the same characteristic of metal antenna and can be reconfigure electrically by the array of lighted CFL. The monopole antenna dimension used is 29.6mm X 36mm X 1.6mm. This design has been simulate using CST Microwave Studio software.

CA-07: Two-Section Flexible Branch-Line Coupler using PDMS as Dielectric Substrate and Superstrate
Student: Muhammad Akram Mohd Sobri, Supervisor: PM Ir Dr Sharul Kamal bin Abdul Rahim

This report presents the design of flexible two-section branch-line coupler (BLC) that operated at 6 GHz. The branch-line coupler (BLC) is a passive microwave component used for power division and has four-port networks. In power division, an input power in port 1 is equally divided between ports 2 and 3, provided 900 phase difference between these output ports. These features make the branch-line coupler (BLC) useful in various applications such as antenna feeding network, phase shifter, balanced amplifier, and mixer. The branch-line coupler (BLC) are designed and fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as substrate and superstrate and using copper foil sheet as conductive element. The Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has several unique properties such as good chemical stability and low dielectric constant. By using PDMS as a structure for the substrate, it will increase the flexibility of the coupler and make it easier to be installed on the curve surface of the applications. The dielectric constant for PDMS material is 2.65-2.72. The bandwidth of BLC is limited to 10%-20% due to quarter-wave length requirement. However, with two-section branch-line coupler, the bandwidth can be increased. The BLC was simulated, measured and the S-parameter was analysed to determine the characteristics of BLC.

CA-08: Single Layer Reflectarray Antenna
Student: Muhammad Amirul Shafiq Mohd Shafee, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Fairus bin Mohd Yusoff

Low profile antennas with high gain become popular nowadays. The reason was low profile antennas can reduce the cost to manufacture it. One of the low profile antennas was reflectarray antennas. However, as the size of the antenna become smaller, its affect the performances of the antenna. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to design an optimal reflectarray antenna at 5.2 GHz. In order to achieve an optimal reflectarray antenna, the unit cell design must achieve a suitable reflection phase which is more than 300 degrees. This project proposed two designs of the unit cells, which are rectangular shape unit cell and ellipse shape unit cell. Each of the single unit cell designs phasing range using variable size of the patch. The reflectarray antenna consists of the reflectarray and the feed. The unit cells for each design were combined to make reflectarray. Therefore, rectangular shape unit cells of the reflectarray and ellipse shape unit cells of the reflectarray were designed. For this project, horn antenna was used as the feed for the reflectarray. Therefore, horn antenna has been designed and simulated at a frequency of 5.2 GHz with 10 dB gain. Then, the complete reflectarray antenna which is the combination of reflectarray and the horn antenna as the source were designed for both designs. Both of the complete reflectarray antennas of rectangular shape unit cell and ellipse shape unit cell with other factors fixed were simulated, analyzed and compared.

CA-09: Integrated RF Vector Reflectometer and Coaxial Probe for Dielectric Measurements
Student: Muhammad Aniq Hashimul Hashim, Supervisor: Dr You Kok Yeow

A dielectric measurement can provide critical design parameter information for many electronics applications such as the frequency of a dielectric resonator that can be related to its dielectric properties. The demand for analysis and measurement equipment is very high recently due to the rapid development of communication devices. The most commonly measurement equipment that been use nowadays is vector network analyzer (VNA) which are too costly and bulky to be portable for handheld measurement purposes. In this project, a low cost, compact and portable vector reflectometer was developed for frequency between 100 MHz to 200 MHz reflection coefficient measurement of the devices under test (DUT). The 4-port reflectometry technique was implemented in the reflectometer design. The reflectometer consists of AD8302 gain/phase detector, dual directional coupler, RF generator, and Arduino Nano microcontroller. AD8302 gain/phase detector is used to detect the incident and reflected waves from the DUT. The design is capable to measure both magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient. To collect and analyze data from the reflectometer, graphical user interface (GUI) was designed by using LABVIEW software. The reflection measurement that elucidated in return loss (dB), voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), matching complex impedance and Smith Chart were included in the GUI. Moreover, Open-short-load (OSL) calibration technique was programmed in GUI to counterbalance systematic errors of the reflectometer. The performance of this design reflectometer is approximately equivalent to the available commercial reflectometer or a vector network analyzer.

CA-10: The Specific Absorption Rate Investigation of Different Mobile Technologies from Commercial Mobile Phones
Student: Muhammad Hafidz Al Azizi Amin Al Hafidz, Supervisor: Dr Nurhudah binti Seman

Despite the tremendous increases in the number of mobile phone globally, yet users do not aware of the significant of the specific absorption rate (SAR), which is one of the specified parameters. SAR is a parameter that quantifies the electromagnetic energy emitted from the antenna of a wireless devices, absorbed by the human body. This research is to conduct SAR investigation on different mobile communication technologies using selected samples of commercially available mobile phones from the market. The investigation is performed through measurement using a specifc setup of ComoSAR system, which is integrated to the OpenSAR software. This system consists of a miniature E-field probe, which is attached to a 6-axis automatically controlled robot, a head simulating liquid or phantom and a phone holder located under the phantom. A network emulator acts as a base station is used to transmit specific signals of mobile communication technologies to the test phone, simulating a normal voice call. The concerned mobile operating frequencies are 850, 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz for second generation (2G) technologies, while 850, 900, 1900 and 2100 MHz for third generation (3G) technologies. The probe measures the electric field in the phantom, which the SAR results are tabulated and imaged in the OpenSAR software. The obtained results show different SAR values obtained from different mobile communication technologies with different tested commercial mobile phones. Furthermore, the findings can be deduced that the SAR value also depends on the location of the antenna in the mobile phone.

CA-11: Solar Wireless Power Transfer
Student: Muhammad Hanif Mohd Nor, Supervisor: Dr Noor Asniza binti Murad

This work proposed the development of solar wireless power transfer for low power devices. The system creates the versatility where the battery storage can be charge using the sunlight and the power can transfer wirelessly to the devices because before this, people got a problem to charge their device when there is no electricity or USB cable . The proposed idea is achieved by using a photovoltaic cell and electromagnetic inductive coupling. For solar charging, the circuit is designed to get the stable output for charging process. For the wireless power transfer (WPT), it divided into several part of the component, the transceiver that uses for power transmission, the inductive coils used for energy transfer by electromagnetic induction to the receiver and the rectifier that used to convert AC to DC. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, Multisim simulation is done to get the DC output voltage of 5V before it is implemented. It is found that the proposed model is superior when the battery can be charged smoothly using photovoltaic cell and the devices can wirelessly charged. The calculation and experiment result have 30% difference due to the influence of sunlight and distance between the inductive coil. The closer the distance between transmitter and receiver, more power can be delivered for the charging process. It is anticipated that the modeling method is useful for WPT designers and circuit developers who require a simple model for the wireless charging process.

CA-12: Development of RF Vector Reflectometer Based on Three Magnitude Detectors
Student: Muhammad Nurhidayat Muhtaza, Supervisor: Dr You Kok Yeow

RF vector reflectometer based on three magnitude detectors is an instrument that accomplishes such measurement of a complex ratio between reflected and incident waves at measurement-port. Nowadays, the demand for analysis and measurement equipment for microwave devices is rather promising recently due to rapid development of communication devices. The design of this reflectometer consists of dual directional coupler, three splitters and three scalar power detectors, respectively. In this study, I use Arduino Nano microcontroller to control the system. This project focused on device development that can detect magnitude and phase for device under test (DUT), such as filter or antenna. Graphical user interface (GUI) using Phyton software was used to acquire the measured data. Operation frequency for the device is from 1.4 GHz up to 2 GHz. Calibration technique by measurement of open circuit, short circuit and load circuit also are introduced to minimize the systematic error of the result of DUT. The performance of this design reflectometer is approximately equivalent to the available commercial reflectometer or a vector network analyzer.

CA-13: RF Energy Harvesting Circuit
Student: Muhammed Ali Saifuddin Ridzwan, Supervisor: PM Dr Norazan bin Mohd Kassim

RF energy emerging as one of promising new green source of energy. There is millions of communication device that transmit RF energy such as radio transmitter, mobile phone and wireless networks. Steady increase in numbers of RF signal producing device make RF energy a favorable source of energy. RF energy harvesting is a process scavenging energy from ambient environment and used it to power up low energy electronic devices such as sensors. The idea of this paper is to convert ac signal harvested from antenna to dc signal using 4 stage Villard configuration rectifier. To choose the best configuration, 2 rectifier configuration which Villard and Dickson configuration have been compared through simulation using Orcad software. The diode used is Shottky diode which is HSMS-2850. The diode is suitable for power below -20 dBm and below 2 GHz frequency. Based from the simulation, it is found that Villard configuration yield better output compare to Dickson configuration with input 1 V voltage supply. Villard configuration produce 155 mV while Dickson configuration produce 80 mV. Printed circuit board for 4 stage Villard configuration has been made and tested using signal generator to confirm simulation result. This design will help to convert captured RF energy by antenna to usable dc voltage efficiently.

CA-14: Wireless Sensor Node with RFID Application
Student: Norsaidah Muhammad Nadzir, Supervisor: Prof Dr Mohamad Kamal bin A. Rahim

The idea of integrating UDOO, Raspberry Pi2, and RFID to develop a monitoring system would help a lot of organizations track and pinpoint exact location of user in both indoor and outdoor environment without the help from GPS. This system is assembled based on server (UDOO) and client (RFID) communication to initiate data transferring where an algorithm is developed using Python to link both of the system via Raspberry Pi2. The data obtained from the RFID is processed by the Raspberry Pi2 and sent to the database which were created using XAMPP in UDOO via wireless connection. The result will be displayed on a monitoring system that could be accessed by the user where a specific section of a building layout will light up as the database receives data from Raspberry Pi2 that were set up at that exact location in the building.

CA-15: Local Green Tea Moisture Content Measurement using Microwave Horn Antennas Up to 15GHz
Student: Norshafina Shafie, Supervisor: PM Dr Mohamad Ngasri bin Dimon

Moisture content is one of the most important elements in determining the quality of green tea. The purpose of this study were to detect and measure the moisture content of green tea by using two microwave horn antennas as the measuring method and to carry out the measurement of moisture content of local green tea. From the experiment, two parameters which are reflection coefficient (S_1,1) and transmitter voltage output were measured in relation to the moisture content of the green tea based on the input power of 7dBm and a variety of frequencies which are from 10GHz to 15GHz. From the performance analysis result, it was found out that the two parameters (S_1,1 and transmitter voltage output) were at the best performance at the frequency of 12.5GHz as it was able to detect the variation of moisture content of the green tea.

CA-16: Wireless Charging System
Student: Raja Ammar Akif Raja Ismail, Supervisor: Dr Leow Chee Yen

Nowadays, charging a mobile phone is an everyday routine. When the alternating current (AC) supply is not available, portable direct current (DC) charging system, commonly known as power bank can be used to charge the mobile phone. Conventional portable charging system relies on the use of USB cable connection to charge a device. However, the cable tends to tangle and break over time. In addition, the users have to align the cable connector with the charging port on the mobile phone before a charging connection can be made. This can become a daunting task especially for the elderly. This project proposes a portable wireless charging system which can charge a mobile device using near field charging technique. The underlying concept used in this project is high frequency resonant coupling where the system requires two coils, one for transmitter and another for receiver, which operate at the resonant frequency of 13.56Mhz. The power source used in this project is DC which is converted to AC by using an oscillator circuit. The AC is directed to the transmitter coil and received by the receiver coil using inductance coupling effect. When resonance happens, a current will be induced and sent to the rectifier and voltage regulator circuit before it can be used to charge a mobile device. A prototype has been developed to demonstrate the concept of the proposed portable wireless charging system. The received power is measured using multi-meter and the transfer efficiency is quantified.

CA-17: Emergency Communication System with Disaster Sensing and Reporting Function
Student: Sia Euk Huei, Supervisor: Dr Leow Chee Yen

Although Malaysia is located at geologically stable region free from earthquake, volcanic and typhoon activities, Malaysia is often hit by flood, landslides, forest fire etc. During the occurrence of natural disaster, the ability to maintain mobile cellular communication is crucial for rescue operation. In this project, a relay based emergency communication system is proposed. A disaster sensing device based on NI myRIO-1900 controller and several sensors targeting flood detection is developed in this project. The environment parameters such as water flow rate, water level, and temperature will be reported wirelessly through Wi-Fi as a trigger for the relay. When the event of flood is detected, the proposed full-duplex relay improves GSM network coverage by extending its coverage area and maintaining the ability to make/receive call and send/receives short message service (SMS). The relay system is tested over a GSM network which is deployed using OpenBTS and Ettus USRP B100. The results justify that the proposed system is able to detect flood event and extend the coverage area to maintain the SMS and voice call services to disaster-affected area.

CA-18: Smart Home Garden Irrigation System with Raspberry PI
Student: Syaza Norfilsha Ishak, Supervisor: Dr Nik Noordini binti Nik Abdul Malek

Home automation system was integrated into many functions like irrigation system that can be able to monitor plant growth and control the parameter which is solenoid valve either with automatic or manual user interface. Nowadays, there are many irrigation system available in the market and working in automation system. However, the equipment used is very expensive and it is not worth to install in mini garden. In this project, the irrigation system will be implemented with Raspberry Pi and then it helps by multi-sensors like soil moisture, ultrasonic and light sensors. The system will be activated by user email and all sensors will start reading the data. Some specific data will be triggered the solenoid valve and the soil will get the water to be moisture. The system also will send back an email to home user after the system completed. Moreover, user can activate the solenoid valve manually based on certain condition. Besides that, all data sensors will be stored in database as a reference purpose. The database can be monitored by laptop or smartphone as long as there is internet connection on user`s gadget.

CA-19: Compact MIMO Antenna For 5G Application
Student: Tan Meng Guan, Supervisor: PM Ir Dr Sharul Kamal bin Abdul Rahim

Faster data rate and wider coverage or larger bandwidth are the concerns of end users nowadays. The increasing demand of these requirements prompted Telecommunication industries and researchers to introduce new technology to provide users a whole new experience, which is the 5G technology. Towards the realization of 5G technology, compact Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna has gaining the attention from related parties. The reason the compact MIMO antenna is so popular is because multiple antenna can form on a single substrate. This will increase throughput of the antenna and counteract the multipath fading. However, multi-element antenna in a single substrate will subject to mutual coupling and decrease the performance of the antenna. Hence, the main challenge in designing compact MIMO antenna is to reduce the mutual coupling effect. In this project, a compact MIMO antenna with size 40x41.2 mm3 is designed and proposed for 5G application. The antenna consists of two planar antenna elements which arranged orthogonally to provide a good isolation between them. To further enhance the isolation and decrease the mutual coupling effect, a parasite rod is added in the design. Initial result shows that the antenna can operate from 3GHz to 10GHz and have isolation below -15dB.

Subtrack: CB - Optical, Photonic, Acoustic & Sensors

CB-01: Analysis of Swiftlets Acoustic Sound
Student: Amirul Rasyid Zabidi, Supervisor: PM Dr Nor Hisham bin Khamis

This research is about the analysis of swiftlets acoustic sounds. This research is done and documented as reference for those who are interested in swiftlet business. First and foremost, swiftlets are influenced to five factors. They are aroma, light, temperature, humidity and sound. Sound is the most sensitive factor for swiftlets. Therefore, the main goal of this project is to obtain and identify the best frequency that can attract the swiftlets to enter the house. This research is done by extracting the information out of the recorded swiftlets sound samples. The techniques that are used to perform the extraction are Fast Fourier Transform and Short Time Fourier Transform. Matlab is used to obtain the goal of this project. The swiftlets sound samples is collected at east of Peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan and Terengganu). The methodology of this project is first the audio is cut into small parts to reduce its size to 20Mb or less. This is because Matlab cannot run an audio that is more than 20Mb. Then Matlab takes it roles to perform the frequency analysis and power spectrogram graph. As a result, the proposed frequency ranging is between 5kHz – 6kHz for internal while 5.5kHz – 6.5kHz for external used. In conclusion, the amplitude of the sound samples should be vary high and low. High amplitude sound samples are play outside to call the swiftlets from far.

CB-02: Industrial Active Noise Cancellation Hearing Device
Student: Anis Najihah Abu Samah, Supervisor: Pn Siti Zaleha binti Abdul Hamid

Controlling noise has been a traditional challenge in the industrial and business world. Nowadays, a noisy phenomenon in industries is an issue to prevent because when workers consistently expose to sound at or above 85 decibels for a long-term duration in life, can cause hearing loss or deaf. Incident of deaf or Noise- Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) occurs when the louder the sound, the shorter the amount of time takes for being deaf. Therefore, Active Noise Cancellation technique introduced as a method for reducing attenuating ambient background noise. This studies analysis the efficiency of this technique by using integrated circuit (IC) model LM 358A for pre-amplifier, inverting and summing the signal input. In addition, this circuit verified by using wave generator and oscilloscope with different frequency, starting from range of Extreme Low Frequency band (30Hz-300Hz) to Very High Frequency band (30MHz-300MHz). However, the highest frequency being analyze is 60 MHz as the maximum ability of the wave generator used. The result from this study proved that the circuit cancel out the majority of the background noise at the optimum frequency range is less than 20 MHz.

CB-03: Investigation of Acoustics and Sound Quality for Taman Putri Kulai Multipurpose Hall
Student: Aulia Nur Zhahran, Supervisor: PM Dr Mohamad Ngasri bin Dimon

Multipurpose hall functions as an enclosed room whereas various activities can be held inside it. Unlike any other enclosed room, multipurpose hall required additional approaches in term of its acoustical properties in order to achieve a better sound quality and gives better aural satisfaction. Due to that, activities that possibly held inside a multipurpose hall is categorized into two, one that focus on speech intelligibility another one for desirable place for musical sound, however both are contradictory to each other in term of their acoustical parameters. Nevertheless, both conditions must be possessed by a multipurpose hall. The object on this study is Taman Putri Kulai Multipurpose Hall located in Kulai, Johor with a volume of 3301m3. The acoustic parameters involve are RT60, NC, STC, and RASTI. SPL measurement was done for a frequency range of 250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz, 2000Hz, and 4000Hz. Obtained data were compared with suggested acoustics design criteria which are RT60 of 1.3 second, NC of NC 40, STC shall be in the range of STC 40, and a minimum of 0.6 RASTI for an enclosed room to achieved a desirable acoustic quality. Analysis were based on the aural inspection, architectural drawing, and SPL measurement using SLM device. Outcome of the study is to provide suggested acoustical treatment by proposing acoustic materials installation to the hall. By installing reflective materials, it improves ETC where the direct sound and early reflections occur within 35 ms, as for absorbing materials it reduces echo inside the hall.

CB-04: Determination of Rain Attenuation by Raindrop Size Distribution for 5G Wireless System in Malaysia
Student: Intan Norshafika Annuar, Supervisor: PM Dr Jafri bin Din

Millimeter wave band provide wider bandwidth and higher data rate which is able to offer a data rates up to 1 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and very suitable to be implemented in 5G wireless system. However, the operating frequency at millimeter wave is highly affected by atmospheric conditions especially the rain. The best approach of determining rain attenuation for radio-wave frequency is by determine the specific attenuation. At higher frequency which is between 30GHz and 300GHz, rain can influence the attenuation a lot, the effect of atmospheric attenuation between the source and destination over wireless communication is one of major concern. Raindrop size distributions (DSD) have been found to play an important role in monitoring rainfall and in predicting rain attenuation. The specific attenuation is calculated based on the rain rate that obtained from the disdrometer that are install at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia’s (UTM’s) campus Kuala Lumpur. In order to find the attenuation on 5G wireless system, the link budget analysis and optimum distance for the 5G radio base-station has been carried out with respect to the standard mm-wave transceiver system and based on the C/N margin respectively. The rain intensity and the used transmitted power will determine the optimum length for the 5G networks. This study not only provide better understanding on the general characteristics of the DSD, but also provide vital information that may be useful for system operators and radio communication engineers regarding the dependencies of rain attenuation on the DSD.

CB-05: To investigate noise reduction using advance damping material for the wind blower
Student: Malisa Norfarhana M Zarin, Supervisor: PM Dr Mohamad Ngasri bin Dimon

Wind blower very important to clean the yard and a large area which had lots of trees which cause the leaves to fall when the autumn. This project is focusing especially to muffler inside the wind blower because this item contributes very loud noise. The Muffler is important item inside the mechanism of the wind blower but the noise that produce from it make the user and the people surrounding uncomfortable yet without a muffler incredibly loud noise will produce. For example, in UTM itself, it is obvious that noise from wind blower is very annoying. In this project the sound level for wind blower is about 108dB which mean it is very harmful. To reduce the noise level from the wind blower, the advance damping material (Neofade) was applied. The Damping material is a device which can control the noise from its source (muffler), in the path between the source and the listener and also is a vibration damping material that can damp solid vibration and able to reduce air vibration or called as noise caused by the solid vibration. Therefore, this project is to appreciate capability and technically of damping material, to apply the damping material to the wind blower strategically (muffler) and to measure the noise level before and after applying damping material to the wind blower. In order to achieve the research objectives, damping material was attached layer by layer until certain thickness to the outer of the muffler that consist front and back. An analysis of noise level had been done for each layer until noise reduction level up to 10Db. Sound Level Meter (SLM) is used in this project to collect the sound level data before and after applying the damping material. This project has proven that the noise level of wind blower has reduced up to 10dB from the original sound level of the wind blower. This is due to the effect of the damping material that was applied to the muffler of the wind blower. In shor,t this project is important because it can reduce the noise level of the wind blower that produce very terrible noise which up to 10db. Besides, a damping material is very light and easy to handle.

CB-06: Optical Waveguide Based On SU-8 Polymer
Student: Mohamad Khairul Fahmi Tahir, Supervisor: PM Dr Mohd Haniff bin Ibrahim

The basic structure in integrated optics is optical waveguide. The fabrication of an optical waveguide is not cost effective. The simulation result is to provide an alternative ways to overcome this problem. Therefore, ongoing development in the area of optoelectronic design have required accurate, reliable and powerful tools for the analysis of it’s constitute wave guiding elements as well as for entire circuits. This project focuses on SU-8 polymer characterization and a single mode ridge waveguide simulation based on SU-8 polymer. Furthermore, the waveguide structure to be optimized using Beam Prop software at 1550nm wavelength. The optical waveguide consist of the SU-8 as the core with an air cladding and SiO2 buffer on Si substrate. The purpose of characterization is to get the exact value refractive index of SU-8 polymer and used in single mode ridge waveguide design. The refractive index measured using prism coupler is 1.5718 at 1550nm wavelength. The multimode interference (MMI) structured has been designed based on the knowledge of SU-8 single mode waveguide.

CB-07: Fiber Optic Sensor for Simultaneous Temperature, Water Level and Refractive Index Measurement
Student: Mohamad Syahmi Mohamad Khairuddin, Supervisor: Dr Asrul Izam bin Azmi

Nowadays, there are many fiber sensor has been develop in order to overcome the weaknesses of conventional existing electrical sensor. This is due to the advantages of the fiber itself that has characteristic that resulting the good features for the fiber sensor. Therefore, this research was conducted to find out the effectiveness and sensitivity of the fiber sensor that using the concept of Mach-Zender interferometer (MZI) and Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) toward different kind of measurement such as temperature, water level and refractive index measurement. The FBG was introduced on the SMF fiber sensor at the sensing part as temperature compensation that help to get the accurate reading during the refractive index measurement by compensate the temperature of the experimental liquid. The fiber sensor was injected with C-band laser using ASE C-band Laser source at the input and observe the output spectrum using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) at the output. The analysis of the experiment was conducted in control environment which is outside disturbance was minimized in order to get an accurate result as possible. The analysis involve the analysis of spectrum’s dip at the output by observing the wavelength shift of interferometer and FBG spectrum for each measurement using Matlab software. In general, the result of the study shows that the fiber sensor has very high sensitivity and very helpful to be used in different kind of harsh environment.

CB-08: Fiber Optic Inclinometer Based on Michelson Interferometer
Student: Mohd Hisyamuddin Juhrin, Supervisor: Dr Asrul Izam bin Azmi

An inclinometer is an instrument that used to measure the angle of slope or tilt and it can also measure the movement of ground. This instrument is widely used in geophysics field. But nowadays fiber optic sensor become more preferable compared to normal sensor due to its distinctive advantageous. In this report , a fiber optic inclinometer based on Michelson interferometer is proposed and demonstrated. The structural design of the sensor is based on SMF-MMF-FBG configuration. The sensor is connected to a circulator which is connected to an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and a broadband source for bending experiment. Within range 0º to 50º the sensor are bent and the wavelength shift are observed using Labview program. Temperature response of this sensor also has been tested from 30ºC to 120ºC. Wavelength shift occur in bending experiment due to phase changes from physical perturbation that has been imposed on the sensor.

CB-09: Liquid Level Fiber Sensor
Student: Muhammad Fahmi Mohd Fauzi, Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Yusof bin Mohd Noor

In past decades, the advancement of fiber-optics sensors play an important role in the development of optical fiber liquid level sensors. Mostly, the configuration of such liquid level optical sensors are based on macro bending coupling, tilted fiber grating and single mode-multi mode-single mode (SMS) variation. However, it has limited measurement range as the sensor head is too short. Therefore, liquid level sensor based on reflection configuration using single mode fiber (SMF) is proposed to tackle this issue. The fiber-end surface was cleaved flat which will reflect back modes and the power intensity is measured using power meter. A broadband source (BBS) is used as a light source. A variation of couplers, i.e 1x4, 1x8 and 1x12 was used to look for the best configuration. The experiment results show that the power intensity is decrease as the level of liquid is increased. The uniqueness of the sensor is the sensor head points can be set to the requirement needed, thus it can be customized for long range of measurement. In addition due its simplicity configuration, only a low cost is involved to realize this kind of sensor.

CB-10: Characterization of Multiple Array Flexible Sensor for Liquid Sensing Application
Student: Nur Afiqah Remli, Supervisor: Dr Rashidah @ Siti Saedah binti Arsat

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have attracted great research interest in recent years due to their unique thermal, mechanical and electrical properties. A flexible sensor is needed so that it can be used on any surface. Therefore, in this project, a multiple array sensor by using silver as the electrodes is fabricated on flexible substrate. The sensor is then deposited with different concentration of CNTs and graphene as the sensing element. The effect of thickness of the electrodes and bending distance is investigated and characterized. The liquid sensing system is operated by using Arduino Uno as the microcontroller for the system. The data from this project are collected and displayed in graph by using Excel software. The multiple array sensor is tested towards the uric acid solution to obtain the sensor’s performance.

CB-11: Displacement Sensor for Misallignment Issue
Student: Nur Atiqah Ahmad Hapizi, Supervisor: Dr Nor Hafizah binti Ngajikin

This thesis discusses the analysis of the sensitivity of fiber sensorhead with microconvex lens towards fiber-reflector misallignment issue. In practical, the usage of displacement sensors requires high precision. This project has proposed two models of a single mode fiber with different sensorheads, due to the additional microconvex lens with radius 18µm as the second sensorhead. Theoretically, the misallignment issue is detected when the light from the transmitter, travels through the fiber, hits the wall of a mirror to be reflected back into the fiber, and eventually arrives at the receiver to be measured. There are two analyses to this project : the analytical and numerical. In analytical part, the Snell’s Law is used to determine the appropriate maximum angle, and the reflected angles as a result to a particular incident angle, at a fixed distance of 75µm. In numerical part, a structure that consists of a gold-coated mirror as reflector is modeled in OptiFDTD software. The results of the interaction between the transmitted and the reflected lights for both structures are observed and the intensity values are recorded. Analytical analysis proves that the light is able to be reflected back into the fiber at incident angle of 2° for the first model, and 4° for the second. Therefore, the additional lens is able to increase the precision by 2°. The numerical analysis also proves that the addition of lens gives much higher intensity value at 4°. The results of both analytical and numerical parts of the analyses are the same.

CB-12: Clogging Ink Properties Study and Temperature Effect For Nanomaterial Inkjet Printer
Student: Nur Azizah Osman, Supervisor: Dr Rashidah @ Siti Saedah binti Arsat

Inkjet printing is one of the important technologies that are used in personal and commercial settings. It works by depositing ink drops onto the paper or substrate. Inkjet printing methods can be used in organic electronics, nanotechnology, tissue engineering and cell pattern. In this project, the modified inkjet printer is used and the heating element at the flatbed paper tray is controlled by varying the voltage. This is important to improve the drying time of nanosilver inks on the various substrates. Besides that, the clogging issue also has been investigated by studying about nanosilver ink characteristics and preparing the solution that can dissolve ink.

CB-13: Performance Monitoring of UTM Optical Network using a Flexible Monitoring Software-Pandora
Student: Nur Syazawani Mispar, Supervisor: Dr Nadiatulhuda binti Zulkifli

Network monitoring is one of the fields that gaining attention nowadays. Instead of the manual way of monitoring the network using monitoring program, users are able to monitor the network automatically by using the suitable software tools. Even though there are many software available in the market, Pandora FMS is chosen to contribute in monitoring the network due to its flexibility. Pandora is a software that can operate through all possible operating system including through smartphones. Pandora also not only monitoring the network, but also monitoring the server, web applications, and also the hardware for example like printers, routers, and switchers. The project is implemented at Characterization Laboratory of Electrical Engineering faculty at P19a of UTM where the laboratory is facing the problems of network availability and unavailable network monitoring system. Installation process is implemented to obtain the Pandora Server and further action of monitoring the network performance is held at the laboratory from time to time. Pandora FMS are able to detect the network failing, and the agents of Pandora FMS which is created after the installation is then will notify the administrator for further action.

CB-14: Hikers Lost Tracker
Student: Nurfatin Hamzah, Supervisor: Dr Yusri bin Md. Yunos

Nowadays, missing people is still a major issue when joining hiking activities. People get lost and split from the group when there are some people in the group that are too slow or they follow the wrong direction. For that reason, development of devices to track hikers and warn hikers when they are far away from each others is really important to prevent people from getting lost. To fulfil this objective, several scopes have been defined. The scope of project includes two 315 MHz RF modules as transmitter and receiver of signal, this module can transmit signal in the forest or mountain. These devices are two way communication. As we know, when hiking in group, the first in line will guide, thus this devices will be in possession of the guider and the last person in line. The buzzer will trigger if the distance of the last person falls behind more than 500m. LCD display will only show when the fixed distance is exceeded. This project also use two arduino NANO, these arduinos are small and easy to use. In order to build two way communication, each device will consist one RF module and one arduino NANO. Consequently, this pair of devices will warn both persons to walk in line or stay in the same pace to avoid lost in direction when distance exceed more than 500m.

CB-15: Sound Characteristics of the Breathing of Adults with Respect to Their State of Health
Student: Nurul Inshirah Mohd Razali, Supervisor: Ir Dr Mokhtar bin Harun

Breathing is an activity namely inhaling oxygen from the atmosphere into the lung and exhaling into the atmosphere carbon dioxide. Breathing has a few characteristics in terms of different state of health of an adult. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to investigate patterns and characteristics of abnormal breathing of an adult with respect to their state of health. Breathing sound has been recorded for both male and female with a difference category of BMI which are underweight, normal and overweight. Breathing sound were recorded in auditorium room for 10 seconds per person and the microphone was placed in 5cm from the nose of the person. Each person seated on a chair comfortably before the recorded start by using Real Wave Analyzer and then it was evaluated by doing some acoustical analysis by using Praat software. It shows that there is a significant difference in terms of breathing sound wave and spectrum between underweight, normal and overweight BMI. The acoustic characteristic of the breathing sound can be fully described using the time domain, by sound intensity and pitch and the frequency domain, by using representative formant frequency and power spectrum. From this project, an abnormal breathing can be identified and characterized due to the state of adult’s health.

CB-16: Video Broadcasting on Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON)
Student: Nurul Zawani Muhamad Khudzari, Supervisor: Dr Nadiatulhuda binti Zulkifli

Video streaming is a platform that allows customers to broadcast video content using camera and computer through internet and viewer to play content via web. In order to produce best quality and higher bandwidth of video broadcasting, Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) is introduced. Video broadcasting through GPON uses GPON test bed that consists of an Optical Line Terminal (OLT), Optical splitter and Optical Network Terminal (ONU).From the ONUs the video can distribute up to 64 users to broadcast the video. This project testing on the video content through ONUs. The performance of video broadcasting is with increasing of ONUs. This project testing only in short distance of the fiber in same network of the GPON. With GPON configuration, the video broadcasting transmitting data from frame 1 to another frame. And frame length is 60 bytes that is 480 bits. In this project, only use two ONUs to transmit the video. The performance of the video review on the VLC player to discover the different between the source and the receiver.

CB-17: Development of Fabry Perot Filter by using Fluorescence Spectrophotometer
Student: Sakinah Zulkifli, Supervisor: Dr Nor Hafizah binti Ngajikin

Analysis a simple and economical optical Fabry Perot (FP) filter for Fluorescence Spectrophotometer (FS) has been developed in this thesis. The function of the Fabry Perot filter is to stores and confines light energy at fixed frequency and the Fluorescence Spectrophotometer require optical band pass filter to increase accuracy of the system. The concept is the light will propagate and comprises two parallel mirrors with a fixed distance apart. Analysis of gold as a parallel mirror presented in this thesis and gold is one of the good reflectors due to the high of the reflectivity. Green LED has been chosen as the light source as the range of wavelength of LED light is 520nm due to make the light source small, simple, low cost concept, but it can emits the high of intensity of light. By using MATLAB software as an analytical method it is proved that the distance of the two parallel mirrors is suitable. For the numerical method using finite difference time domain (FDTD) software, the thickness of the mirrors is 100nm and the distance of the mirror is 1.3μ. It is found that the peak intensity is only at the wavelength of 520nm. So this filter is simple and economical for the development of the Fabry Perot filter.

CB-18: Low Cost Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) System for Multiple PCB type with Defect Pinpointing Capability
Student: Stanley Steve Sylvester , Supervisor: Dr Ahmad Sharmi bin Abdullah

This project presents the development of a low cost automated printed circuit board (PCB) defects detection system based on automatic optical inspection (AOI) technology. A low cost hardware design built using Arduino microcontroller, servo motor and laser pointer is introduced in the last process of the AOI system to increase defects pinpointing efficiency. Simultaneously, a new image processing pipeline based on Oriented FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test) and Rotated BRIEF (Binary Robust Independent Elementary Features) algorithm (ORB) is presented to tackle the limitations of Image Subtraction technique in terms of image acquisition requirement. The main advantage of the introduced hardware design is it can pinpoint the defects physically on the PCB instead of virtually on the AOI monitor alone. Thus, it helps users to save a lot of time and energy in locating the defects on the board manually. Meanwhile, the main advantage of the ORB algorithm is it eliminates the need for the size and orientation of the reference and test images to be the same. The developed AOI system has been tested with different type of PCB defects and circuit design. Experimental results show that general defects such as missing or excessive type can be detected and localized even though the reference and test samples are different in orientation and dimension. Hence, an affordable AOI system with robust image processing technique and physical board defects pinpointing feature has been successfully developed. It can assist the PCB manufacturer in enhancing the yield and quality of their products.

Subtrack: CC - Internet, Networking & Multimedia Apps

CC-01: Academic Thesis Management System
Student: Ahmad Ariffin Razak, Supervisor: Dr Kamaludin Bin Mohamad Yusof

Societies prefer to have a systematic and efficient management system compare to the old, manual style which is time consuming and involves manpower. The right management system can improve the productivity of an institutional and indirectly increase the quality of work. With the era of information technology, online management system is preferable since the system can be accessed as long the devices support internet and web browser. It provides fast and efficient access to the system. Academic Thesis Management System (ATMS) is an online system proposed for the use of Faculty of Electrical Engineering, UTM Postgraduate Office to store the information of the theses submitted by postgraduate students and track the thesis during the evaluation process. It is a medium for an administrator to share the thesis status online to the evaluators and students by updating the information to the system instead of recording the information manually. The system is developed using PHP, CSS and HTML programming language and integrated with MySQL database. A report of an overall performance of the students can be produced by analyzing the whole student’s thesis status. By implementing this system, it is believed to improve the quality of the office and delivers accurate status of the theses during the evaluation process.

CC-02: Motorcycle Wireless Accident Information System Using GSM and GPS
Student: Ahmad Zaim Ali Mokhtar, Supervisor: Dr Noor Asmawati binti Samsuri

This project presents the development of motorcycle wireless information system using GSM and GPS. The purpose of this project is to inform the authorities when a motorcyclist involves in an accident. The hardware is built using Arduino microcontroller, SIM 900 Quad-Band GPS/GPRS Shield, SKM53 GPS shield, buzzer and shock sensor. This system is triggered when the shock sensor detected strong impact due to the accident. This will results in buzzer activation. Then motorcyclist can press the precaution button to reset this system within 5 seconds if there is no major injury or damage, or else the system will send messages to the authorities together with the exact location of the accident. The message is sent using the SIM 900 Quad-Band GPS/GPRS Shield and the location of the user is obtained by using SKM53 GPS shield. The location obtained is in the form of longitude and latitude. The main advantage of implementing this project is to help motorcyclist who involved in an accident and unable or helpless to contact the authorities for help. This will reduce the time taken to alert the authorities in comparison to normal practice of waiting for witnesses to contact the authorities. Every seconds count is crucial when the accident involving severe damage and the victim’s life.

CC-03: Smart Parking Reservation System with Android Application
Student: Fadziri Ibnu Rijam, Supervisor: Prof Dr Sevia Mahdaliza Idrus

This project presents the development of low cost Smart Parking Reservation System built up with microcontroller and semiconductor device for vehicle detection function. A hardware was designed and built using low cost electronic component such as Arduino UNO module, JK flip-flop and Arduino Ethernet module introduced as the base of the system in order to execute the whole operation of the smart parking system. Simultaneously, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed in form of Hypertext Mark up Language (HTML) web page embedded with Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) and JavaScript with the purpose to allow the interaction process occur between the end user and the system. This HTML web page is store inside the Ethernet Shield as a server which the client or user can access it within the network using the designed Android Application. The main advantage of the development of GUI in HTML form is to assist the user to make reservation function on the parking system which was directly into the server itself. The system also consists of main system controller and monitoring which was developed using MATLAB in form of GUI. The purpose of this system controller and monitoring is to assist the administrator to monitoring the parking system operation and also to retrieve data that acquired by the administrator such parking fee and time consumption by the user when using this system. Hence, a Parking Reservation System integrated with Android Application is developed that can lead to a systematic vehicle parking management and also can reduce the vehicle congestion on the road.

CC-04: Development of Wi-Fi Gateway Module for Safety Helmet
Student: Hong Sing Min, Supervisor: PM Dr Sharifah Hafizah binti Syed Ariffin

Confined spaces like mining and house on fire are places that are restricted to movement, have limited exit and air flow. It is not suitable for continuous occupancy and thus serious injuries may occur from hazardous conditions or substances. In order to minimize the injury headcounts, a wireless safety monitoring system is needed to constantly monitor the workers while they are working in confined spaces. The proposed system comprises of sensors, a gateway and a remote laptop. In this project, the focus is to develop a suitable priority scheduling algorithm – Weighted Round Robin (WRR) for the wireless gateway and to integrate it with Wi-Fi module, camera module and SPO2 module. The gateway is programmed using Python to read in sensor data from the camera module and SPO2 module simultaneously. The WRR algorithm serves to sort the sensor data from their accordingly buffers into a main buffer before being sent out to a remote GUI via IEEE 802.11 standardized Wi-Fi. The platform used is Raspberry Pi 2 Model B powered by a quad-core ARM Cortex A7 processor running 900MHz. At the remote GUI, the camera data will be defragmented and flashes of real-time pictures would be shown together with SPO2 data displayed at the side. The result displayed at the GUI is expected to have latency of 200ms-300ms. The equipment is useful for wireless monitoring system to monitor the health being of the confined space workers by their oxygen level data and picture from a remote place.

CC-05: Development of Helmet Mounted Camera
Student: Marie Michelle Pius, Supervisor: PM Dr Sharifah Hafizah binti Syed Ariffin

Safety feature in workplace play important role to ensure the safety of the worker.Many workplace contain area that are restricted due to safety measurement such as a confine space. Confine spaces have the characteristic of harmful gases, excessive high temperature, high risk of serious injury and etc. Therefore, it is important to develop a safety feature devices to improve the safety of worker. One of the safety feature that can be implemented are using a helmet mount camera. By implementing camera on a helmet, the activities of the worker can be observe and record for future training purpose as a reference. The objective of this project is to develop an image capturing module that able to transmit acceptable quality image by ensuring the camera module is properly position on the helmet and develop graphical user interface that able to display sensor data. Besides that, ensure the image displayed on graphical user interface at minimal amount of time. For hardware implementation, raspberry pi was used as the processing board while raspberry pi camera module was used as the capturing system, both will be properly mounted on the helmet. Software implementation involved in develop graphical user interface that able to display sensor unit. Server-client communication was implemented to enable captured image to be transfer to the end-user. At the end of this project, the module must able to develop good image quality and transmit the image through server-client communication then display on the graphical user interface will minimum image delay displayed.

CC-06: Developing A Smart Timing System At Swimming Pool For Training Session
Student: Mohamad Hasyim Zainal Abidin, Supervisor: Dr Kamaludin Bin Mohamad Yusof

Malaysia still lack of achievement to success in swimming competition due to limited technology access compared to the progressive country. Furthermore, the current measuring devices available are lack of actual data measurement and very costly. Therefore, the development of smart timing system is an important aspect to enhance the facilities for training session at swimming pool. A smart timing system is required to give fast feedback in order for coaches to monitor pace time of their swimmer. Moreover, this system also can improve the performance of average speed of the swimmer based on database analysis in single lap training. Hence, in this study we are going to develop a smart timing system at swimming pool at training session, which is the system will help the coaches to monitor the swimmer by using smart phone application. The design of this system involves hardware and software development. In hardware design, the Arduino Uno microcontroller will acts as the controller of the force sensor and touch sensor in the way to trigger timing result. The Raspberry-Pi will get the data level from the microcontroller by using nRF24L01 wireless transceiver and save the result in database. Meanwhile in the software design, the android app will be developing as a user interface, where the coaches will be able to monitor the swimmer easily. The concept of user friendly been use to establish this smart system whereas the communication system easily to conduct as a guidance for coaches to monitor their swimmer.

CC-07: Traffic Monitoring System under Flood Disaster Using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
Student: Mohamad Nawawi Mat Yusof, Supervisor: Dr Nik Noordini binti Nik Abdul Malek

Flood disaster become major disaster happened in Malaysia and it caused serious chaotic situations among the road traffic consumers. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a system for flood disaster monitoring system among the vehicle consumers that prevent implication of disaster to the traffic consumers. The system was implemented using the concept of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in which included the master node and slave node. Master node also known as base station node act as the information collector located at flood area which send the signal to the slave node which equipped by the vehicles itself. Both master node and slave node is using programmable microcontroller and equipped with radio frequency module each to establish two-ways wireless communication. Technically, the focus of the project is to create a sharing information system where it act as mechanism to share the specified flood information to the vehicle users. In fact, it more toward as warning system for the users. The implementation of the project is to reduce the possibility of traffic congestion due to the unexpected disaster among the vehicle consumers and to prevent any leads of serious implication such death and injury. This system become more effective solution to provide a fast and reliable communication and flexible to be suited with the problems.

CC-08: Fire Alarm System for Residential Home
Student: Mohd Amirul Adzha Ismail, Supervisor: Dr Ahmad Sharmi bin Abdullah

This project proposes an improved fire alarm system for residential area based on client-server communication concept that involves domestic fire sensors as client and residential area system coordinator as server. This project offers a low cost system with early warning response capability. The system is developed using low-cost components such as Arduino microcontroller, temperature and smoke sensors. It is capable to give an early warning response by detecting the rapid changing in temperature and the presence of smoke inside the house. The system’s client-server communication is implemented using Noda Radio Frequency (NRF) and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) modules provided by Arduino controller. The system continuously monitors all installed domestic temperature and smoke sensors. If it detects a sudden temperature increase and a presence of smoke, it will notify the house owner by sending a message to their registered phone. When the situation worsens, the system will quickly call the owner and alarm the nearest fire station. The system has been tested in a condition where ambient temperature is rapidly raised to 50° C from 30° C with a presence of smoke for 10 seconds. The system has successfully detected the sudden change in temperature as well as the smoke and it immediately makes the expected alarm calls. These early warning features in reality can have a very significant impact to the community. Hence, it is very convenient to have this fire alarm system installed in every house within a large residential area.

CC-09: Portable Emergency Repeater
Student: Mohd Nasure Koma'rudin, Supervisor: En Ameruddin bin Baharom

A quick respond in communication during the emergency (no telephone line) is need to facilitate rescue team and the victim to communicate inside and the outside disaster site. This project is to propose an alternative way to overcome the problem. Walkie talkie is the only alternative to be use during the phone lines breakdown because it uses own frequency to communicate each other. Whereas to extend the communication range, a repeater is relevant way to make sure the walkie talkie can connect each other in a long range communication. A portable repeater is a medium that will connect two sets of walkie talkie handheld in this site. Some procedure should be taken to set a pair of walkie talkie to act as a repeater to operate in their own frequency. In other hand, walkie talkie cannot withstand in a long period if its operate frequently. Hence to overcome the problem, an Arduino circuit was used to control an external battery in the portable repeater case. Additionally, a solar energy concept was introduced in this project to support the external battery life using an Arduino programming. The overall system architecture, the relevant elements, and the methods of establishing and integrating them to be a mission system are described. The proposed system can help to provide emergency management services.

CC-10: Android Smartphone Application for Bus Tracking System
Student: Muhamad Aizzat Abu Bakari, Supervisor: PM Dr Sharifah Kamilah binti Syed Yusof

Public transport is one of the facilities that play important roles these days. In Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), students are provided with the facilities of UTM bus to go anywhere around the campus. Even there is scheduled when the bus will arrive, there is still delay for bus arrival time. Sometime, the bus comes too early so the student needs to wait for another bus to come. These entire situations make them arrive late at their destination. The solution for the problem stated before is to provide the passenger with bus information which is bus arrival time at pickup point. Therefore, passengers can decide to still waiting for the bus or find other transport as they know the bus will arrive late if they keep waiting. The system proposed is using Android application for smartphone to show the bus arrival time. The app in driver bus Android smartphone will update their current location to the database. Their phone must equip with Internet connection and Global Positioning System (GPS) function. Ubidots is used as database to store bus coordinates. Ubidots is one of the online cloud services that can store raw data. When the users or students want to know their bus arrival time, the app installed in their Android smartphone will request the data from the database and calculating the distance between user location and bus current location. The user app also required internet connection to run as requesting data from database can be done via Internet connection.

CC-11: Lossless Image Compression of Variable Block Size
Student: Muhammad Afiq Abdul Rahim, Supervisor: En Samura bin Ali

Nowadays, many people tend to take pictures for hobbies,event,travel and even for professional job of photographer. But all this kind of images need a huge amount of space or data size to saved and it will fully fill up the hard disk or any storage devices. The big data size of the image will takes longer times to be transfer to other platform and it will be troublesome if the information need at that moment. Image compression is the technique to solve this situation as in telecommunication and medical area, the use of lossless image compression tend the image not loss any information and image quality while reduce the file size. The data missing from the original image will leads to misunderstanding as the information from the compressed image received not exactly identical to the original image. This thesis proposed image compression technique by compare the compression ratio of block size from 16x16,8x8,4x4 and 2x2.The block size of 16x16 will be compressed and if the compression ratio lower than the offset, select the 8x8 block size and obtained the compression ratio. If the compression ratio of 8x8 higher than compression ratio of 16x16,we select block size 8x8.We also perform the same operation for 4x4 and 2x2 block size to determine the compression ratio. After done the operation of all block size, we determine the best block size from the rest by compare the compression ratio by select the higher value. The higher the compression ratio,the better the performance of the compressed image. The compression and decompression process done with sample picture file.The Matlab software used to analyze the performance of image compression by write the coding in Matlab.

CC-12: Swimmer Performance Monitoring System using Wireless Sensor Network
Student: Muhammad Luqman Azmer, Supervisor: Dr Kamaludin Bin Mohamad Yusof

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is currently one of the most developed and researched field in electronics as its potential to create an impact to our society through its application. WSN able to act as bridge between physical and virtual world. Amongst many of its application, WSN in sports field start to become popular as athletes and coaches realize the need of electronics system to create a more accurate measurement system also to analyse performance of athletes during tournaments but more importantly during training session. This project will implement WSN in monitoring performance of swimmers using electronic sensors. The important elements to analyse is stroke rate which how many stroke per minute. Sensor that will be use is accelerometer. The challenges that need to overcome is to implements electronics system underwater which will require waterproof system but the most difficult task is to implement wireless Radio Frequency (RF) communication system underwater. In this implementation, 2.4 GHz of wireless communication wave will be use. Three microcontrollers will be used. One is attached on the swimmer’s arms to collect all data from sensor which will use an Arduino Pro Mini board. Another one is to act as a server and receive data from the swimmer and view it outside the pool which will use Raspberry Pi mini-computer.

CC-13: Early Drowning Detection System
Student: Muhammad Ramdhan Mohd Suhaili, Supervisor: Dr Kamaludin Bin Mohamad Yusof

Nowadays, drowning is the leading cause of injury deaths for children aged 1 to 18 years old. According to the Prevention of Childhood Drowning report in Malaysia, about 300 children die from drowning in Malaysia every year, one of the drowning locations is at the pool. Designing a low-cost drowning detection device is becoming important needs for monitoring child safety at the pool. The purpose of this project is to design an early drowning detection device that can give an earlier warning to their parents or lifeguard. The project is named as `Early Drowning Detection System`. This device sends an alert to a parent`s or lifeguard`s smartphone if the detector triggers an abnormal heartbeat and when the children submerged for a long time. The Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller is used to control the signal received from a pulse sensor (for detecting heartbeat) and time for signal lost under the water before transmit to the monitoring hub. The Raspberry Pi microprocessor has been used as a monitoring hub. This monitoring hub acts as a web server and data forwarding. UART 433MHz RF-Transceiver has been used to send a signal between drowning detection device and monitoring hub. This monitoring hub uses internet connection as a medium to give a warning to the parent’s or lifeguard’s smartphone. These devices have been tested and installed in the pool to ensure the effectiveness of this device as a safety system for children. Therefore, the parents or lifeguard may able to monitor a child safety only via their smart phone.

CC-14: Characterisation of Underwater Communication
Student: Na'imullah Mat Din, Supervisor: PM Dr Nor Hisham bin Khamis

Our communication system was improved by time with advanced technology according to our lifestyle. Recently, underwater communication system was introduced using different transmission medium such as light, sound and cables. This transmission medium have different characteristics when we use it underwater. Therefore, the aims for this study is to characterize the underwater communication system using sound (SONAR) transmission medium. The characteristics that was tested in this study is sound speed profile, transmission loss and attenuation of the underwater communication system. The data was collected from the South China Ocean and then were analyzed using Bellhop Toolbox and Matlab. The data that collected was distances between source and receiver, temperature, salinity and the depth of the ocean then inserted into underwater sound speed equation. The results were put into Bellhop coding for analysis and as a result, sound speed profile and transmission loss plotted. From simulation, the sound wave can travel far underwater even though it only travel in slow speed with approximately 1500m/s and the transmission loss will be greater by distance. The depth of the ocean and distance between transmitter and receiver give a big impact on noise level and attenuation of the signal. The result of sound speed profile and transmission loss are presented such that they can be used to design a good underwater communication system.

CC-15: IoT Based Home Monitoring System
Student: Nur Zafirah Azman, Supervisor: Dr Rozeha binti A Rashid

Utilization of mobile information and communication technologies in home monitoring applications are becoming more common nowadays. With the availability of Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology which promotes devices’ connections to the internet, remote access and control of devices or appliances at home can be easily carried out using mobile phone. In this work, an IoT based intercom system is proposed. A traditional intercom system lacks remote home monitoring that can help to prevent burglary from happening or missing deliveries of important packages. Therefore, an IoT based home intercom system with notification and video will be developed that can provide a solution to address the issues of remote home monitoring as well as providing home security by interacting or identifying people at the front door via a smart phone. The system consists of an Android based application for real-time interaction as well as data storage and retrieval. The hardware platform is designed using Raspberry PI to provide user-interface for audio/video capture and wireless doorbell. The performance investigation will be carried out in terms of system delay and reliability.

CC-16: Radio over Fiber (RoF) for Fourth Generation Application
Student: Nurul Hamida Awang, Supervisor: PM Dr Razali bin Ngah

The research is about the signal performance evaluation of 4G LTE downlink testbed using Single Input Single Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(SISO OFDM) system and 2x2 Multiple Input Multiple Output OFDM(2x2 MIMO OFDM) system. The experiments are carrying out for both SISO OFDM and MIMO OFDM at different transmission which consists of wireless transmission and optical transmission via Radio over Fiber (RoF) technology. The arrangement testbed of downlink 4G LTE via wireless transmission is set up. Then, the data transmission between source and destination are simulating using Labview simulation software. The performance of SISO OFDM and 2x2 MIMO OFDM are evaluated to demonstrate how the interpolation of BER and throughput with the various SNR in digital wireless transmission. Data are encoded in ODFM symbol and further modulated in QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM.After that, the RoF technology are implement where the SMF optical cable is applied to allow the transmission of data via wired channel for both SISO OFDM and 2x2 MIMO OFDM.The performance of signal transmission in optical network are appraised also using Labview software to establish the bit error rate(BER) and throughput at different signal to noise ratio(SNR).The compares of signal performance between wireless and optical signal performance of downlink 4G LTE are differentiated and analyzed.Besides that, the constellation diagram of QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM are appraise in wireless transmission and wired signal transmission.

CC-17: Amateur Radio Android Application
Student: Raian Zafar Khan, Supervisor: En Ameruddin bin Baharom

Amateur Radio is a radio frequency which is used for non-commercial exchange of messages wireless communication, private reaction and emergency communication. During any communication breakdown the main purpose of amateur radio is to use a variety of voice, text, image and data communication modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum. This project aims to develop an android app for people around the world who can detect talk across a long distance without the internet or cellphones. The main purpose of this project is to make an android application which will help people to reach the nearest amateur radio station under all circumstances. The objectives of this project is to develop an android app which can locate the user and the nearest repeater to show the distance between user’s location and repeater. The contributions made by amateurs over the past one hundred years include several significant new technologies which has been widely adopted outside of the amateur radio community which helped many people during the communication breakdown. MIT App Inventor is a web developing application which is provided by Google, and now it is maintained by MIT. It helps newcomers to computer programming to create software applications for the android operating system. We are using MIT App Inventor to develop the amateur radio application as this software can locate the location of the user and repeater through GPS system.

Student: Sharful Hossain Rafee, Supervisor: Dr Ahmad Shahidan Abdullah

The term home automation can be defined as a distributed electrical control system designed to monitor and control the mechanical, security, humidity and ventilation functions of a building. With the rising power of technology, we can accomplish things more efficiently and at a much quicker rate, home automation is just an extension of that advancement to our residence. This project aims to develop an android app for efficient monitoring of home security system. The main objective is to establish a Bluetooth communication between the mobile device and surveillance system to make the security monitoring system more convenient. Upon completion the app should be able to receive data from surveillance systems, play the videos and store the videos in phones storage system. The concept of home automation became a lot more popular when home automation apps were introduced. Since home automation requires human commands to function properly and which can only be done by using a control interface through which a person can communicate with his home automation systems. Phone applications providing these interfaces are very convenient because it removes the need for additional components, moreover phone’s internet service is a great feature to monitor home functions from distant places. Considering the above cases, a user interface providing the user with the option of transferring video data using blue-tooth may have practical application in home automation security systems.

CC-19: Parental Alert Child Detector
Student: Siti Ariffah Akmal Mohd Atan, Supervisor: Dr Yusri bin Md. Yunos

“Parental Alert Child Detector” (PACD) is designed to locate the missing children through a loud sound emitted from the buzzer. This prototype uses RF technology and it is specifically designed for indoor area. There are 2 RF devices involved in this project. The child will be attached with an RF device which is powered by a 9V battery. Another device will be held by the parents or guardian. These devices can communicate in 2 ways, which means both ends can trigger the alarm by pushing the button. Both devices contain RF transmitter and receiver circuit. Each of the RF devices use 315MHz RF transmitter module and receiver module, with a range of distance of 500 feet. DIP switch is used to determine the address of the device. The address of the receiver must be the same as the address of the transmitter, so that they can communicate with each other. The transmitter uses PT2262 IC, while the receiver uses PT2272 IC. Both circuits will be connected to a voltage regulator that uses LM7805 IC. If the parents could not find where their child is, they will push the button on their device. An RF signal will be sent to the paired device attached to the child. The RF signal will trigger the buzzer at the child’s device and a loud sound will be emitted from the child’s device to alert the parents. The device can also be turned on by the kids if they could not find their parents.

CC-20: Anti-Theft Motorcycle Alarm System
Student: Siti Zareen Naqiyah Zool Ambia, Supervisor: Dr Noor Asmawati binti Samsuri

This study is related to motorcycle anti-theft system which is a system that can increase awareness of the users toward their vehicle. The system can prevent the motorcycle from being stolen easily by making a call to their cell phone through the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). Existing alarm system in the market slowly shows its disadvantage. This is when the thief tried to steal a motorcycle, the system will produce a loud sound. People at the surrounding tend to ignore the noise and assume nothing happens to the motorcycle. What makes thing worse, the owner himself cannot hear the sound produced by the alarm system. The study began by studying how previous researchers conduct their experiments. Once the information is collected, the difference is made and ideas for improvement are highlighted. The study of several types of sensors and devices that suitable to use in this system have been conducted. The sensors that have been implemented in the system are tilt sensor, ultrasonic sensor and vibration sensor. These sensors will be placed in a hidden place in the motorcycle to avoid the thieves to be able to see it. So, when a thief tries to steal the motorcycle, the alarm system will be activated and GSM will make a call to the motorcycle owner. The development of the software and hardware is successfully implemented and the process of stabilization of the programming is being monitored from time to time.

CC-21: Investigation on Energy Efficient Protocol using LEACH for WSN
Student: Syaza Athirah Mohamad Azman, Supervisor: Dr Nik Noordini binti Nik Abdul Malek

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is formed by hundreds of sensor nodes that are distributed autonomously within the sensing area. Each sensor nodes are equipped with multiple sensors and processor. It also incorporates with a gateway that provides wireless connection to communicate among nodes and pass data to one and another. There are various applications using WSN such as wildlife monitoring, environmental monitoring and smart space. The limitation of WSN is that they are only dependable on power battery to ensure their lifetime as a sensing device. Thus, in order to prolong network lifetime, various research has been done including the development of energy efficient routing protocol. One of the earliest techniques is Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH). LEACH protocol uses randomization to select cluster head in order to have an evenly distributed energy among nodes. This project provides an in depth knowledge of LEACH protocol and how it is implemented on TinyOS using a TelosB mote. By implementing a conventional protocol which is Direct Transmission along with LEACH protocol in nodes, a significant impact on energy dissipation of protocols can be examined. In the findings, LEACH protocol energy usage in transmitting data can be evenly minimized thus lifetime of nodes can be longer. The result shows number of alive nodes using LEACH is higher than using Direct Transmission protocol. Therefore, by applying LEACH as transmission protocol, LEACH manages to extend the lifetime of nodes so that transmitting data over the base station is more reliable compared to Direct Transmission.

CC-22: IEEE802.11 Interference Management Algorithm for Touring Record System(T-Rec System)
Student: Toh Jun Hau, Supervisor: Dr Rozeha binti A Rashid

As the usage of wireless based devices such as smart phones are becoming more popular, wireless access points (APs) are getting more congested. Therefore, solely depending on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is not sufficient to determine the best AP when several APs have similar readings of RSSI. In order to select the best AP for internet usage, an interference management algorithm is required. In this project, a ranking based algorithm is proposed to determine the best wireless AP using the parameters of Link Margin (LM) and Probability of Detection (PD). The algorithm is implemented in the design of an Internet-of-Things (IoT) based smart guard touring system for decision making to select the best AP for internet access to facilitate uploads and retrievals of the guard’s patrolling record to and from the cloud database. The system is also equipped with a Near Field Communication (NFC) reader to obtain the identification of the guards as well as a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy access by authorized personnel. The performance investigation is carried out in terms of algorithm’s effectiveness and system delay. The result shows that the algorithm is able to automatically choose the best AP for internet connection within an acceptable time delay.

CC-23: Motion Tracking Surveillance Camera
Student: Muhamad Aiman Muhammad Hazis, Supervisor: Dr Ahmad Shahidan Abdullah

Subtrack: EA - Embedded Systems & FPGAs

EA-01: Smart Irrigation System

The current irrigation system uses either human force or a timed sprinkler to water the plants. These techniques bring a number of disadvantages such as irregular watering to plants and water wastage. One of the main aims of this project is to reduce water waste produced from the greenhouse overhead sprinkler system. By using moisture sensors to detect amount of moisture in soil, the overhead sprinkler or water pump could deliver the sufficient amount of water needed by plants without wasting them. Furthermore, water that seeps through the soil were also captured and sent to the source (filtered if necessary) to be reused to water the plants. Another aim of this project is to allow remote monitoring. Data of watering time of plants will be kept in a MySQL/SQlite and Excel database in the computer and sent to an online blog. The user does not need to be in the greenhouse to monitor the watering of the plant. The user only needs to monitor the database that is stored in the blog to see if the plant is watered or not As the conclusion, the smart irrigation system will try to automate the plant watering system using moisture sensor, reduce water wastage, and increase monitoring ability of the user to the greenhouse system.

EA-02: WiFi Based Flash Flood Warning System

Flash flood is the most common natural disaster in Malaysia. The unsystematic urbanization process nowadays results in clogged drains and poor drainage systems directly lead to flash flooding. With a model of flash flood events happened in Kajang city a few years back, it shows the aftermath of the disaster is very bad, it may result in a total loss of infrastructure up to RM5 million besides threatening the citizen life as well. In order to reduce or solve this problem totally, it consumes a lot of time and money. For example, all of the flood mitigation plan and deepening the drains is very costly. Due to these facts, this report highlights the WiFi Based Flash Flood Warning System as an approach to reduce the aftermath of the flash flood. The developed flash flood warning system is using the latest technology features, which is Internet of Thing (IoT) besides normal warning displays. With the use of (IoT), the systems will sends a warning of upcoming flash flood via Twitter to alert the public and targeted personnel as the sensors installed at the targeted drains detect risky water level that may lead to flash flooding. Using the (IoT) techniques enables the system to work on a real time basis as it directly warns the responsible authority and public of an upcoming flood event.A flash flood event occurs very fast, therefore this system will benefit the community as they will have adequate time to take safety measures against the upcoming disaster.

EA-03: Implementation of FSK Modulator using Xilinx Zynq Programmable SoC

For a complicated signal processing such as signal modulation, hardware implementation on an FPGA provides better performance with even less power consumption than software implementation on a microprocessor. However, hardware design is more challenging and difficult than software design. This project involves the design of an FSK modulator on logic cores. The platform used is Avnet’s ZedBoard that is powered by Xilinx’s Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoC. The project main goal is to design the hardware logic of FSK modulator on the Programmable Logic (PL) side of the Zynq SoC by using Verilog or VHDL language. The input data to the modulator is from a GPS Peripheral Module (PMod) which needs a driver to be designed for it to work. The output of the modulator will be sent to the audio Line Out port of the ZedBoard, which also requires a design of the driver. Software designs in C language are also done for the designed hardware to work as a system. An audio jack is connected from the Line Out port to a computer, and subsequently Matlab is used to demodulate the modulated signal. Matlab is also used to check the correctness of the transmitted signal even though correctness is not prioritised. This project will guide the process of designing the logic part of Zynq SoC for hardware embedded system implementation.

EA-04: Smart Surveillance System

In fact, Malaysians no longer feel safe in the country, juvenile activities statistics are become increase over a year and ridiculous report reported daily. It is feels our safety are not guaranteed for recreational purposes to school and work. The traditional methods in take care of safety and monitoring threat activities are commonly confined in the use of CCTV cameras. So, smart surveillance system becoming a need in any public or private area to paralyze with the threats activities cases. In this study, the focus on incorporate with the IP camera system to build up a smart surveillance system by using object oriented language. Basically there are many type object oriented languages include Python, C#, Objective-C, Smalltalk, Delphi, Java, and Swift. The focus by using C# language programming application, this language can be represented by implemented any Microsoft Visual Studio version. Besides that, with this language we want to create a system that can identifies the IP address/URLs of IP camera neither in RSTP or Onvif devices, detection movement of human being in target area.

EA-05: Design of Low Power and High Speed Comparator

Dynamic comparators are utilized to ensure the requirement of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) can be fulfilled in terms of speed, power efficiency and area. It is important to maximize the speed and reduce power consumption in designing dynamic comparator. In this project, a faster dynamic comparator with a high power efficiency is designed for utilization in a high speed ADC architecture, such as flash ADC. A new dynamic comparator is proposed, where two control transistors are added to increase the speed while another two switching transistors are used to overcome static power consumption. The transistor level design of dynamic comparator is implemented using Cadence Virtuoso (version 6) by using 180 nm Silterra CMOS technology process. An analysis on functionality, speed, and power of the dynamic comparator will be presented to compare the designed comparator with the conventional comparator. As conclusion, the proposed comparator uses less power compared to the conventional comparator.

EA-06: Helmet Detection For Robbery Prevention System

Recently, the robbery cases become one of the most serious cases among the violent crimes in Malaysia. Most of the robbery cases have similar characteristic, which are the robbers are wearing mask or helmet and carry a weapon. Therefore, an alert system that used to detect the characteristic of robber is designed. In this system, an algorithm is developed to detect people who wearing a mask or helmet based on image captured by a camera. A function of automatic door lock and voice alert systems are added to prevent any criminal intention. If people who are wearing helmet are detected, the door will locked automatically and a sound alert notification will be triggered. If the people refuse to remove it, the shopkeepers have the authority to send an alert notification to a police station and the store owner. The system is able to minimize the chances of being robbed.

EA-07: IoT - Room automation
Student: HO CHUN YEEN, Supervisor: MR KAMAL KHALIL

IoT or refer as Internet of thing is a new term that introduced a few years ago. What so special about this concept is it have a great potential to make advancement on today technology. Mankind has evolved since the born of their age and IoT is a kind of tool to bring mankind’s lifestyle and industrial work to another level. Instead of that, living in a huge data acquisition world and the effect of globalisation had brought the term of internet to its better usage; hence IoT is a good example to expand the use of internet. This idea is going to bring a lot of convenient to us and by using this concept, the future of the technology is seem to be one step ahead. IoT in room automation has been introduced long time ago, but this project is mainly focus on giving an alternative solution to reduce the cost of the system, maintain its quality and make it more innovative.

EA-08: Petri Net Compiler For Programmable Logic Controller

Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a microprocessor-based devices used to control industrial processes or machines. The main objective of this project was to develop the frontend of Signal Interpreted Petri Net (SIPN) compiler for PLC. The compiler consists of an advanced Graphical User Interface (GUI), intermediate code generator, and token simulator. The compiler was also developed as an open platform so that it can accept external modules, and compatible with various operating systems (OS). To allow flexible drawing and editing the SIPN elements, the GUI consists of the call and draw sub-SIPN model functions to ensure better overview of the entire drawing process. The intermediate code generator able to read and produce the Incidence Matrix which is calculated based on the drawn SIPN model. The token play simulation is formulated using SIPN state equation which relies on the current state, firable transition and Incidence Matrix. Last but not least, all the above software development was using the QT framework for C++ programming and compilation so that the compiler can be executed on different OS or upgraded OS. The compiler was verified by comparing with by hand calculation, and other similar compiler or simulator. The compiler was successfully running on different OS such as Window 7, 8, 10 and Linux. The GUI is able to give real time response, sharp edges drawing, and natural way to present the details. The open platform concept will ensure the compiler can be easily upgraded by adding more plugins to cater for future needs.

EA-09: Intelligence Cane Aid

There are many forms of disability and among of them, blindness is one of the most suffering forms of disability which is not only affects one’s lifestyle also sometimes could put them in danger situations (e.g. hitting by vehicle when crossing roads, falling from high places and etc.). Traditional mobility aids such as dog guide and white cane have been useful in helping visually impaired people to do many moveable tasks. However, both methods take a lot of time getting used to and the functions are limited, such the cane only can sense any obstacles up to 1 meter, so it unable to warn the user until they touch it. Additionally, guide dogs are very costly and they need to be looked after. The main purpose of this project is to develop an intelligence cane to increase the mobility and awareness of surroundings for a blind person. The cane consists of multiple sensors like ultrasonic sensor, temperature sensor, force sensitive resistance and barometric pressure sensor that are controlled by Arduino board to sense any form of obstacles (either front obstacles or potholes) as well as a weather conditions and then the cane will alerts the users through audio output and vibration. The device expected to combine robustness, efficiency and easiness of use in assisting the visual impaired to raise their level of awareness and mobility.

EA-10: Real Time Tracking Using Global Positioning System(GPS)

This project introduces a real time tracking device using Global Positioning System (GPS). This project was done for those who needs an extra security measures in their daily life. With this device (user Android hand phone), the user are able to track the position of the other device (user second Android hand phone) in a real time situation. Thus, the user can placed the other device wherever they seem fit or suitable such as in their vehicles like car and motorcycle or maybe in their handbag in case they lost it. This project was done using Android Studio 1.4.1 in Windows operating system where the tools needed are Android Development Kit (ADK) with a Java Development Kit (JDK) and Java Runtime Environment (JRE). Android Studio is the official Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Android application development. As a result, the map application of a real time tracking can be obtained after the process of compiling and debugging using the Android Studio. The application was installed into an android phone which can show the current location of the second android device. It is expected that this project can help the high end user to secure their belonging as well as their vehicles when they park them.

EA-11: Sectorized Antenna for Software Define Radio Application

Generally, antenna is widely used in telecommunication sector such that it can transmit and received radio waves. There are two main types of antenna which are directional (high gain and high directional) and omnidirectional (low gain and 360° coverage). This research is going to combine these two features which are high gain and 360° coverage. A group of antennas will be fixed at three different levels with three different frequencies. For each level, there will be 6 directional antennas (Yagi) which are simply built using printed circuit boards (PCB). The antennas will be connected to a switching board which will select an antenna at a time and sequentially with the same time interval. The user can also focused on any sector pointed by an antenna to be continuously operated. As a result, this antenna will be tested by receiving a sinusoidal signal from a transmitter. The incoming signal will then be process by Field-Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA) to determine its baseband. FPGA process an antenna signal at a time, then shift to the next antenna on the next cycle continuously. For different levels, the FPGA will process one antenna at a time and shift to the next level of antenna for the same sector. Then the FPGA will move to the next sector to repeat the process continuously. The FPGA will convert the incoming signal using very high speed ADC. Then the signal will be processed before being display the waveform on PC. This is truly the best telecommunication antenna as it is 360° and also high gain.

EA-12: Decimation Filter of 16-bit First Order Sigma-Delta Analog to Digital Converter

The aim of this project is to design a decimation filter for 16-bit first order sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter. There are two part 16-bit first order sigma-delta which is sigma- delta modulator and a decimation filter. The first part sigma-delta modulator was done by another student and this project will focus on decimation filter. The decimation filter was designed based on second order Cascaded Integrated Comb (CIC) filter approached. This work presents register transfer level design and output simulation of the decimation filter. This project was implemented in Quartus II by using Verilog.

EA-13: Smart Detection of Over Speeding Vehicles System at Public Area

The main aim of this project is to develop a device to detect speeding vehicles at public area, to be specific at school area and to alert the traffic in case of any speed violation. Accidents due to rash driving at public area are rising and people are losing their lives because of others mistakes. In the present system, the police has to use a handheld radar gun device and Automated Enforcement System (AES) in order to detect rash driving. Handheld radar gun device is used by aiming at the vehicle to record its speed. If the speed of the vehicle exceeds the speed limit, nearest police station is informed to stop the speeding vehicle. This is an ineffective method due to time consuming. The implementation of AES managed to reduce accident rates in Malaysia by up to 34%. However, the system may cost around RM200,000 per unit which is pretty costly to implement in Malaysia. The proposed system is effective as current one, nevertheless with reasonable cost per unit. The proposed system will check on rash driving by calculating the speed of a vehicle using the time taken to travel between the two set points at a fixed distance. One set point consists of a sensors comprising of an Digital Infrared Sensor (IR) which to trigger time to start and another set point consist of Digital Infrared Sensor (IR) which to trigger time to stop. The speed limit is set by the police who use the system depending upon the traffic at location. This proposed system used two microcontrollers in order to calculate accurate speed when two cars travel between set points at the same time. The time taken by the vehicle to travel from one set point to the other will be calculated by the first microcontroller program. Based on that time it then calculates the speed. On top of that, at unavoidable circumstances if there’s other vehicle crosses the speed limit, data from the first microcontroller will be sent to the second microcontroller, then, the data will be displayed on an LCD and a buzzer sounds alerting the people around that area.

EA-14: Smart Agricultural Monitoring and Control System

Smart agricultural monitoring and control system is a system that monitor the crop in farm by using a sensor that can give the reading based on farm condition. Smart agricultural monitoring and control system consist of three parts i.e. input, controller and output. The data from sensor will be send to thingspeak website for monitoring and displayed on LCD. This monitoring system using the new technology provided which is internet of thing (IOT).In this smart agricultural monitoring and control system the controller part is based on arduino microcontroller and programming software using arduino IDE software. This system designed to make farmer easy to monitor their farm by using internet and make the automated crop care. This system have automatic water sprinkler and automatic light source for the crop. Water sprinkler only ON when soil sensor detect soil in dry condition and light source ON when sensor detect low intensity of light source. Therefore Smart agricultural monitoring and control system will give advantage to the framer to take care their crop.

EA-15: Smart Plant Monitoring Assisted System

As a population is growing, the agriculture activities are highly needed. In addition, the home agriculture activities are useful for economical and healthy living. Nowadays, many people has an interest doing gardening and planting in residential area. However, due to some reasons such as long working hours in the office and busy with their household management, tend to forget watering their plants. In this project, a smart plant watering system is proposed to ease the monitoring and pot plants watering in house. These systems are implemented on the growing activities of two plants, Murraya Koenigii (Curry Tree) and Persicaria Minus (Daun Kesum Tree). The smart plant watering system is using dripping irrigation technique for watering the plants that located in the pots. The microcontroller based automated watering and lighting system consists of soil moisture sensors, waterproof temperature sensors, Arduino UNO board, relay channels module, water pump, deep red power LED and DC adapter. This project precisely controls watering and lighting for the plants by using sensors in the microcontroller system. It is implemented by sinking the soil moisture sensors and waterproof temperature sensors in the plant to monitor the soil humidity level and soil temperature level. The soil humidity sensor and waterproof temperature sensor are transmitted the obtained data to the microcontroller to trigger irrigation time and lighting time that requires by the plants.

EA-16: Construction and Crane Security System Kit

Nowadays, safety problems at construction site become a serious matter. A lot of heavy materials and equipments on the site would cause the accidents. Sensor and data logger system are being used to provide information regarding the stress and strain of the structure. In practice, a conventional thin-film strain gauge is used as the sensor. However, most of the commercial data loggers available in the market are expensive, bulky and fragile. This project proposed a low cost and small size construction and crane security system kit to help monitoring the hazard on the construction equipment and material. This prototype system is an integrated electronic alert system for stress and strain movement on construction structure. It is consisted of vibration or displacement sensor module (SW-420 NC) and 1 to 5 analogue to digital data logger. The sensor module is attached to the construction structure in detecting any vibration or displacement events. The obtained signal is sent to the data logger. The data logger system on Arduino Uno Board acts as a microcontroller to compute the data and trigger an alert to the user (Civil Defence). The vibration or displacement readings obtained are displayed in a serial monitor on a computer. The alert system is characterized using a bending machine that provide load on top of a sample of normal concrete prism with steel fibre. The vibration sensor is attached to the sample at an opposite position to the conventional strain gauge. The readings from both systems and the analysis are presented.

EA-17: Programmable Data Logger Using PLC

Nowadays, industrial automation plants are controlled essentially by PLC-based control systems. The existing PLC system has encountered a problem which is harder to deal with more complex systems. Therefore, this report describes implementation of a new PLC platform which includes I/O board and the processor board. Swift PLC board is used as an interface to control and monitor input and output of the system. The main engine of the processor board was developed using ARM microcontroller MK20DX256VLH7 and have been designed using Cadsoft Eagle Software. This new PLC system contains its own hardware design, front-end and back-end compiler. The main modelling of the PLC is based on ladder logic diagrams (LLD) to represents the configuration of the mechanical relay in an automation control system. The back-end of this Swift PLC system is programmed by using C programming whereas the front-end is being developed by other team member under same supervisor. Data communication between Swift PLC and PC was established by using RS232 since it is a standard for serial communication of data transmission. This new PLC system used Triangle Logic PLC (TRiLOGI) as its benchmark in terms of performance and speed. The completed PLC was verified and tested on several applications. One of the applications is implementation and analysis of data logging mechanism based on the operation of the existing Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) prototype developed by High Speed Reaction Flow (HIREF) in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM.

EA-18: Application of Active Inductor In Adiabatic Circuit

Active inductor becomes a highly attractive choice over their spiral counterparts due to its interesting and unique advantages which include, smaller silicon area, high quality factor(Q),tuneable inductance and able to achieve higher inductance with high resonance frequency. In this project, Hara Active Inductor is implemented in a simple adiabatic inverter circuit. The active inductor is implemented in the LC resonant circuit that generate sinusoidal waveform as the power clock for the adiabatic circuit. However, active inductor generate a high level of noise. There are a few types of noise exhibit by active inductor. This project focused on reducing the thermal noise that generate by active inductor. The proposed circuit is design using TSMC 0.25um CMOS process technology. The performance of the circuit is observed based on transient analysis of the circuit the simulation using Tanner Tools.

EA-19: Cry Baby- Arduino and Android based Baby Monitor

According to the Malaysia Department of Statistics, the total number of infant deaths in Malaysia in 2010 until 2011 are 3295 out of 491239 live births. One of the factors is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is also known as crib death. Apparently, healthy baby dies without explanation. Therefore, an audio-based baby monitor is developed as one of the ways to solve this problem. It functions by alerting the parent immediately when the baby cries for any urgent needs. Nowadays, people tend to carry their mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, wherever they go and Android phones are one of the most preferred smartphones. This project presents the design and implementation of a low cost prototype for an audio-based baby monitor. The novelty of this project as compared to other audio-based baby monitors is that this device uses Bluetooth wireless technology to connect to the Android phone. The baby monitor is built using the Arduino UNO microcontroller to control the output from baby crying voices using a microphone. Bluetooth module HC-05 is used to transmit data from Arduino UNO microcontroller board to Android smartphone which will alert parents when their babies are crying. An Android application is developed to provide a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for parents to monitor their babies. This project centralizes on monitoring baby cries using an Android platform via Bluetooth connection. Overall, it is hoped that the project will be able to help parents to pay attention on their work while keeping in mind about their babies at all the times without worrying about their children crying.

EA-20: High Level Design of Arithmetic Coding

The idea that Huffman coding and Arithmetic coding delivered to make data compression have solve many data storage and data transmission problems. Both of the algorithm used as a lossless or entropy coding technique where the compressed data can be retained back as original format. Huffman coding is used as compression method that removed coding redundancy by calculating probability of all symbols in whole image and rearrange the structure or code according to probability. While arithmetic produces code word within an interval on 0 to 1 by using probability and encoding sequence. In this project, both Arithmetic and Huffman coding algorithms appeared for data compression encoder. Both techniques were tested in different platforms which C language and HDL (Verilog). Processing both techniques with C language and HDL like Verilog will give better execution time for a program to run completely. Comparison has been made for both Arithmetic and Huffman entropy coding in terms of running time, bit rate, frequency and power consumption.

EA-21: Bluetooth-Enabled Bin Robot

With the rising cost of human labor, most manufacturers are taking precautions in facing the issue by replacing it with robot. Although the initial investment in using robot is significantly high, but it will cut more expenses in term of cost of human labor in long term. This is because human labor requires numbers of training before they can qualify to do certain task or job. Besides manufacturing, robot can also be useful to be applied in other area for example in waste management system. This project attempts to build a mobile robot that can maneuver its own path and to avoid any obstacle along its way. A robot is designed that can move by itself towards garbage collector truck whenever it is being called. The challenge in designing a mobile robot is the path planning. The robot relies on algorithm that has been planned to maneuver its path and to avoid any obstacle along its way. Communication between robot and the garbage truck will be via Bluetooth. The preferred main board as microcontroller for the robot is Intel Galileo Gen 2 Development Board that can be programmed in Arduino IDE. Robot replacing human labor to collect trash will reduce potential danger and risk that might endanger human. It is also certain that with the use of robot, the system will result in more hygienic environment and will run in more efficient manner.

EA-22: Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) based Feature Extraction on Multiprocessor System-On-Chip

Feature extraction is an essential stage in vision based object detection system. Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG), a locally normalized feature extraction method, is one of the most promising algorithms for object detection especially for detecting human. However, as the demand in accuracy and speed in real time applications increases, its complexity and intensive computational load became an obstacle for real time detection in embedded system. This project presents an image based hardware architecture implementation of HOG on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The main functions in HOG involved gradient computation, orientation binning and block normalisation. Both gradient computation and orientation binning are done in hardware since these functions require repetitive iterations and has potential for parallelism. The algorithm is reformulated to improve the system throughput while maintaining computation accuracy. Besides, multicore processing is also introduced to further improve the performance of the algorithm. Characterisation and analysis of HOG`s performance are done on pure software system as well as hardware and software co-design in both single core and multicore platforms. Overall comparisons are done in the aspects of timing, memory consumption and design trade-off. It is found that an acceleration of 8.74 times was achieved through hardware implementation on single core compared to the full software HOG system. Meanwhile, although multicore system performed 2.38 times faster than single core, the memory resources it consumed is 10% more.

EA-23: Design-for-Testability (DFT) Method for Sequential Circuit
Student: TIM WEI LUN, Supervisor: DR. NORLINA PARMAN

Based on the Moore`s Law, the number of transistors in the dense of integrated circuit(IC) will be double every two years. Difficulty of testing increase exponentially over the year due to the growth of complexity of the IC. Thus, design for testability (DFT) method is introduced to reduce the testing complexity for the IC. This method added extra hardware in the original circuit. This project is motivated to introduce DFT method in order to make it the circuit easily testable. The DFT method using thru function to extract information at high level description. The minimum feedback vertex set (MFVS) algorithm is implemented to select register that very hard to test. The performance of the circuit is measured in terms of fault coverage, test application time, area overhead and test generation time. The simulation results shows that the proposed DFT method has high fault coverage around 99% compared to the original circuit using the circuit of greatest common divisor (GCD) and finite impulse respond (FIR). This promising result proves that DFT method is really needed in the very large scale integration (VLSI) realization process to reduce cost and reduce the failure product.

EA-24: Embedded System Design of Arrhythmia screening Device With Wireless Communication

Arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm which may eventually causes cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke. This project presents an embedded system design of System-on-Chip (SoC) based arrhythmia screening device with wireless communication. The device is standalone, cost effective and light-weight and equips with user-friendly touch screen GUI design and self-interpretation features. It has an arrhythmia classifier that can classify the four most common types of arrhythmia, namely, Second Degree Heart Block (2nd HB), Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC), Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and Ventricular Fibrillation (VF). This can provide early arrhythmia screening for the public as they can monitor their heart condition frequently in home. The device is implemented on Video and Embedded Evaluation Kit-Multi Touch (VEEK-MT) which features the Altera DE2-115 development board and a capacitive touch screen. The system consists of three subsystems which are Electrocardiogram (ECG) data management, front-end GUI design, and back-end ECG signal processing and arrhythmia classification. Besides, this system also equips with an ECG acquisition unit to capture the ECG signal of the user. This unit utilizes Arduino Uno board, Olimex EKG-EMG shield, passive electrode and Cytron BlueBee module. The passive electrode is a standard three lead ECG electrodes that can be used capture user’s ECG signal. The ECG signal captured will be amplified by an amplifier circuit, the Olimex EKG-EMG shield. Analogue ECG signal obtained from this shield will be transmitted to arrhythmia screening device using Cytron BlueBee module as transmitter and serial port Bluetooth Module HC-05 as receiver in the VEEK-MT.

EA-25: Image Filtering Algorithm on FPGA Hardware
Student: Muhammad Shuib Bin Mohd Rozali, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Muhammad Mun`im Ahmad Zabidi

Subtrack: EB - Digital Signal & Image Processing

EB-01: Portable Computer Controlled Potentiostat

Nowadays the biochemical detection has been advanced. Variety of Potentiostats has been made as technology expands. However, not so many potentiostats in the market are flexible in their detection. They are also mostly not mobile in nature. Therefore, this project will present on how a potentiostat can be controlled manually using a computer or laptop. The control will be used via LABVIEW. This software helps the user with GUI it can provides and also improving the signal obtained from the potentiostat. Therefore, this project will demonstrate how the potentiostat made is flexible, mobile and can be integrated with personal computer or laptop easily.


Recycle and reuse of solid waste has become one of the hot issue in Malaysia as many of the landfill sites are approaching or already exceeded their maximum capacity. Furthermore, Malaysia government announced to implement new Act 672 which is to encourage all Malaysian household to separate their solid wastes according to their types. Thus, this Final Year Project aims to develop a machine vision based sorting system to assist human workers in sorting the recyclable solid wastes in the recyclable centre which will be receiving tons of solid wastes in the future. Inside this system, the collected recyclable solid wastes will be presented as single file on the conveyor belt and the camera on top of the conveyor will capture the image and send to the computer for processing. The images of the recyclable items will first been grayscaled and scaled down to a smaller size for fast processing. The processed image will be fed into a pre-trained neural network for recognition and classification. Lastly, the computer will then send the output of the neural network to the mechanical sorting system to sort the targeted recyclable solid wastes into the destination containers.

EB-03: Face Detection on FPGA System

In this modern age, cameras can be obtained easily as almost all devices has camera attached on them. This shows that the application of image processing has become more crucial and beneficial in our daily lives. One of the application for image processing is face detection. In this project, images are inputted into a FPGA and then processed to detect any faces on the images with the outputs are shown on a monitor. This project aims to detect faces from images on FPGA platforms. Utilizing the parallelism on FPGA platforms, face detection can be accelerated through proper hardware design. Using the method proposed by Viola & Jones, this project is done on SoCKit Development Board running with OpenCV as the library. The algorithm which uses combination of integral image, AdaBoost and cascading classifier makes the face detector fast and robust. Through this project, more application can be implemented, such as face recognition, security system and also in real time systems. The result proves that the detection is fast and has a high rate of positive image with low rate of false positive image. To achieve higher rate of detection, more cascade can be included, but with the cost of speed.

EB-04: Vision based Barcode Reader using Intel Atom Processor for Stand Alone Application

Barcodes are optical machine readable information representation of an object. The concept of barcodes is to encode information in bars and spaces of varying widths. A barcode reader is used to decode the barcode. Barcode reader can be of laser scanners or using vision based devices. This Final Year Student project aims to read barcodes using vision based devices for stand-alone applications. The application is able to run independently without the need of network connection to other devices. Using stand-alone application results in a simpler program management and lower implementation cost. In this project, the system consists of a camera, a monitor and a processor. The camera will be used to take images of the object containing the barcode. An algorithm will be developed using OpenCV library for processing the image and decoding the barcode. The Intel Norco board which contains the Intel Atom D2700 processor will be used to accept the input images from the camera and use the algorithm to decode the barcode to obtain the numerical digits that will be displayed on the monitor. There are 3 stages for image processing of barcode which are preprocessing, barcode localization and barcode decoding. The algorithm implemented in this project will decode barcodes of types EAN-13 and UPC-A as these are the most common barcodes used for household products.

EB-05: Signal Analysis Software For Spectrum Monitoring

Regulatory authorities make sure the conformance of spectrum usage is maintained and managed properly by observing the spectrum. This method is spectrum monitoring. The important features in spectrum monitoring are signal recognition and identification. This research presents signal analysis software for spectrum monitoring. In order to do signal classification for digital modulated signals, spectrum monitoring is used. The signal classification is based on the data obtained from the spectrogram and the power spectrum display. Forms of modulation that represent information in digital form are either FSK, PSK or ASK. FSK is a type of carrier wave that has varying frequencies while PSK has a carrier wave of varying phase. A varying amplitude of a carrier wave is known as ASK. Using the Fourier transform method to find the power spectrum estimation is long established. In using the method, the signal is assumed to be time-invariant. The most usual time-frequency analysis is applied in this spectrogram. The wanted modulation parameters such as instantaneous energy as well as instantaneous frequency can be acquired through the time-frequency analysis. This time-varying signals are represented in a meaningful manner of a greater extent. Two categories of signals such as recorded wav files as well as real time signals are played and analysed by the signal analysis software. In short, the signal analysis software that uses power spectral density and spectrogram is improvised so as to determine the important modulation parameters of the signal, to minimise the complications of interference and to enhance quality as well as shorten the time for digital modulated signal recognition by using signal analysis software.

EB-06: Developing A-Mode Ultrasound Circuit For Bone Densitometry

The purpose of this project is to develop an A-mode ultrasound circuit in bone densitometry system. There are others bone densitometry system available such as X-Ray, MRI and others. However, the system are found to have several disadvantages such as involving ionizing radiation, took longer time to setup, and so on. In addition, demand for the bone diagnostic also increased. From that problems, the idea to develop ultrasound circuit is emerging. The information regarding the ultrasound circuit has been studied as well as parameters related for bone density measurement. 1MHz frequency has the highest absorption for bone. The ultrasound circuit consist of a pulse generator system, high voltage pulse circuit, transducer for transmitter and receiver part, instrumentation amplifier and oscilloscope. The FPGA is chosen as a pulse generator because of its reputation that can provide a high speed clock. The output from the FPGA is connected to MOSFET driver and then to the MOSFET to create a pulse signal by using a switching technique and enables a voltage amplitude of the signal to be changed. The signal is sent to PZT transducer and emitted into the experimental containers filled with water and received by the transducer PVDF. The attenuated signal received, amplified back by instrumentation amplifier and then sent to oscilloscope to display the signal as voltage versus time. The circuit will be tested by various test such as testing signal strength with varying distance between the transducer and voltage signal amplitude. During literature review, problems and constrain were identified.

EB-07: Music Genre Effect on Learning Performance

The advance of modern communication technology and equipment provide people easier way to interact with the various types of sound. Some researchers believed that listening to specific sounds like Mozart music and white noise during working or studying able to increase the people’s performance. The background sound has a great influence on human thought, efficiency, and capabilities. In this present study, the effect of Mozart music and white noise on students learning process was investigated. This study determines the response of brain electrical waves using electroencephalography (EEG) acquisition machine. In general, there are five classifications of human brain rhythms waves (beta, alpha, gamma, theta, and gamma) that related to its specific functions. In order to collect the data, 30 students of 19 to 24 years old were selected to experience simple visual working memory task in different conditions. In this test, the subjects request to memorize two digit numbers with a special picture in 2 minutes. The brain signal was recorded during the memorizing time using Neurofax 9200 EEG machine. Then, the raw EEG data were processed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) approach for removing the noise and extracting the relative energy feature. The effect of sound on memory was evaluated based on two parameters; memorizing test score and relative energy of brain rhythm. Based on the result, it shows that the white noise able to improve the ability of student in learning process compared to Mozart music and control/silence condition.

EB-08: Tracking Device Using Micro-controller connect with Android Application

In today’s society, one can see that tracking something that being stolen or lost has become much easier with the technology advances that have been developed. When most people think of tracking devices they primarily think of negative issues, but that has all changed now. A tracking device the size of a tiny little box that can be implanted to provide the location of valuable property, locating lost or missing individuals and even tracking of the elderly. The users in modern era are getting aware of the safety and effective use of GPS tracking device for their vehicle when there is increasing of the reported cases on stolen vehicles. Designing a low cost GPS tracking device is become an essential for the user nowadays. This will save the money and improve safety to the user. Monitoring the location of the user vehicle using android application is more convenient. This project is purposely done to design a tracking device using microcontroller that connect with the android application. A tracking device is developed using Arduino Uno to obtain the exact location provide by the GPS module in the form of latitude and longitude. Since the tracking device connected to the smart phone, the Sim900 GSM Shield is used in order to send the location in form of short message service (SMS) to the smartphone. An android application installed in the user’s smart phone as the main controller for the tracking device. The main functionalities of this android application is to send a passcode to the tracking device in order to obtain the location from it. When the location obtained from the tracking device the location will be linked with google maps so that the location can be traced. The user are able to monitor and traced the exact location of the stolen vehicle by using the google maps navigation system provided. The increasing of reported stolen vehicles and high price of GPS tracking plan will make users more concern to choose this low cost and user friendly GPS tracking device as an option to improve the safety of their vehicle.

EB-09: Attendance System using Face Recognition

In Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, students are compulsory to attend at least 80 percent of the credit hours on a subject. In order to continuously check the students’ attendance, lecturers are requested to hand out an attendance sheet for students to sign in during the class hour. However, by using this method students can trick the lecturers by signing for their friends who are actually absent. In addition, the signing process disturbs the student’s concentration during the lesson. To overcome these problems, an Attendance System using Face Recognition approach is proposed in this Final Year Student project. Using the proposed approach will enable all lecturers to get the actual attendance without disturbing the concentration of the students during the lessons. This project focuses on how to detect and recognize the multiple faces accurately. Face recognition has three stages: Enrolment, Identification and Verification. This project utilises the Uniform Local Binary Pattern as feature descriptors in the Enrolment stage. The feature descriptor of a person will be extracted and saved into the database in csv file format. While in the Identification and Verification stages, Linear Discriminant Analysis is used as a template matcher where a feature descriptor of the target person, captured by the camera, is compared to each feature descriptor stored in the database. This project is implemented using OpenCV 3.1.0 library.

EB-10: Cloud-based Efficient Medical Imaging Management System via Watermarking Techniques
Student: TAN JIA HAO, Supervisor: DR. ZAID OMAR

Medical images are visual representations of patients that are used by medical personnel for diagnosis and treatment purposes. With the evolution in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), medical images which are now stored in digital format, face the multi-layered challenges of accessibility, storage size and security. Hence, the aim of this project is to develop a secured and efficient cloud-based medical imaging management system that could be accessed remotely in smartphones and personal computers using Universal Windows Platform (UWP). In this context, modified Least Significant Bit insertion method is used to watermark the retrieval key and encrypted information of patient into the medical images before storing in the server. A user management system is used to authenticate the access of users and to perform query of the stored data. As a result, the application created will be able to encrypt and embed patient information into the medical images with an incorporated compression ratio of 59%. Overall, this study affirms the feasibility of a secured and efficient cloud-based medical imaging management system. It can be further improved to assist efforts of confidential information sharing between hospitals with greater efficiency.

EB-11: mathTOOL as teaching assist device for slow learners

Literacy and Numeracy Screening (LINUS) has been introduced since August 2009 by Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. The main objective of this program is to help student who is struggling with reading, writing and counting skill at the early age of 7 to 9 years old. The program includes three main subjects which is Bahasa Malaysia, English and Mathematics. There are a lot of teaching methods introduced during this period and the success is remarkable. However, some of the teaching methods are restricted to the urban area only, especially those materials that requires internet access. The problem arises because of many factor such as reachability, size of the devices for teaching and geometrical factor. Therefore, a solution is purposed to create a portable device in order to assist teachers in rural area who teach in LINUS program especially in Mathematics Year 1. The purposed device will be developed by using Scratch Programming that is acted as an interactive software interface which is then will be implemented on Raspberry Pi 2. The software built is based on Graphic User Interface (GUI) which allow user to interact with the device through graphical icon. The device is expected to be interactive as it is aided by sound effect to attract attention of the user. On top of that, the device is expected to solve problems faced by rural area’s teacher in order to vary their technique and method of teaching.

Subtrack: EC - Micro/Nano Electronic Circuits & Device

EC-01: VLSI Design of First Order Sigma Delta Modulator

The aim of this project is to design a first order sigma-delta modulator which can convert the analogue input signal to a 1-bit digital output. This work presents transistor level circuit design, layout design and output simulation of first order sigma-delta modulator. The design have been simulated using 0.13μm CMOS technology from Mentor Graphics tools. The theoretical and topological analyses of each design are highlighted in detail, including the trade-off among various parameters such as gain, noise, output swings and input offset voltage. The simulation results show the performance of modulator in transistor level circuit design and layout design are compatible with each other was generated successfully in this project. For the optimal operational amplifier performance, the circuit is able to achieve 64dB gain, a 68° phase margin, and a 1.1V output swing with a power supply voltage of 1.2V. The advantages of this project is low power consumption and smaller layout area can be achieved.

EC-02: Interface Charge Density In Graphene FET Simulator Using MATLAB GUI

Discovery of graphene by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov in 2004 has brought significant contribution to the CMOS technology namely for electronic devices. Due to its outstanding properties, it has been used in a lot of applications such as field-effect transistor, touch-sensitive screens, liquid-crystal display, light-emitting diodes, dye-sensitized solar cells and organic solar cells. Thus, interface charge density in graphene field-effect transistor (FET) is important to be studied in order to get more accurate electronic characteristics such as capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics. In this research, a comprehensive simulation tool based on graphene FET named as GFETSIM is developed as graphical user interface (GUI) using MATLAB. Automated self-consistent method is the way to do extraction of interface charge density for graphene FET for this research. It is written in MATLAB m-script file and being integrated in MATLAB GUI to develop simulation tool. The interface of the GFETSIM is generated using Graphical User Interface Development Environment (GUIDE) in MATLAB with additional plug in. The developed simulator will allow users to do analysis for graphene FET by graph shown in graphical display of simulator. In addition, this simulator also allows users to select their own specifications or default values to access the outcome of graphene FET. Moreover, reset action in simulator will help to reduce time limitation for continuous benchmarking. GFETSIM is able to be executed as a standalone application without installation of MATLAB. Last but not least, this simulator is still at preliminary stage and its functionality can be further improved. This work is an ongoing development of the carbon-based device simulator in UTM.

EC-03: Respiratory Rate Monitoring System using Graphene Strain Sensor

Monitoring respiratory rate is a simple yet useful approach to monitor the progression of illness and to detect respiratory abnormality which is important marker for serious illness. The monitoring can be done by detecting chest movement during respiratory using strain sensor. In recent years, number research on graphene strain sensor is growing due to the potential advantages of this material. Some reports have demonstrated the usage of graphene strain sensor in various applications. In this project, we utilize a simple graphene sensor for implementation of respiratory rate monitoring system using. The strain sensor is fabricated by coating elastic band with reduced graphene oxide. The resistivity of the coated elastic band is characterized under different tensile strain. When the band is expanded, the resistance is shown to decrease due to the reduction of contact between surfaces coated with reduced-graphene oxide. The elastic band is positioned around the chest to detect inhalation and exhalation conditions. Resistivity change in the strain sensor is converted to voltage that is read by Arduino. Arduino displays the respiratory rate from the received signal. Warning alarm will be triggered if the respiratory rate is out of normal rate. The designed system can be used to monitor Reserve Officer Training Units (ROTU)’s trainee during the physical training in harsh condition. The monitoring system is expected to contribute to prevention of unwanted situation such as sudden death.

EC-04: Optimization of 3-D Twin Silicon Nanowire MOSFET (TSNWFET)

Starting in around 1965, a paper written by Gordon Earl Moore stated that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit (IC) will double up per year. This theory is most known nowadays with the name of Moore’s Law. Thanks to the technology of scaling of silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), Moore’s Law had been proven by years. Aggressive scaling has realized an excellent integration density and performance of today’s CMOS LSIs. In addition, novel channel structures are now being introduced, including ultra- thin-body MOSFETs with 22 nm technology node and FinFETs with 22 nm process technologies. Twin silicon nanowire MOSFET (TSNWFET) is an advanced nanotechnology which is believed to be the smallest structure of CMOS devices as well as approaching their downsized limits according to the Moore’s Law. This project will is focused on the p-channel Twin Silicon Nanowire MOSFET (p-TSNWFET) by using 3D technology computer aided design (TCAD) Sentaurus tools. The simulated process is similar to the technology with a 15nm gate length presented by Samsung. The thesis discusses the simulation and characterization of p-TSNWFET. The electrical characteristics of MOSFET such as threshold voltage (VTH), subthreshold swing (SS), ratio of ION/IOFF, and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) are extracted from the ID–VG curve. The aim of this project is to design an optimized structure of p-TSNWFET by using the previous result (device demensions) from the previous work. The dimensions that were used in this project are 2.5 nm of gate oxide, 15 nm of gate length, and 5 nm of nanowire radius. It is expected that p-TSNWFET should have almost symmetrical ID–VG curve with the n-TSNWFET’s which will be further discussed in the result section. Finally, the electrical characteristics of p-TSNWFET are analysed and will be compared with n-TSNWFET.


Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors in a chip will approximately double for every 24 months. The devices scaling of complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology has achieved the density, speed and power improvement over the last 50 years. Despite the advances of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) downscaling, short-channel effects becomes critical at nanometer regime. Recently, a new two-dimensional material called graphene has been discovered. Studies found that a single-layer graphene has a property of thin barrier and thin gate controlled region that has a higher immunity against short-channel effects. However, the presence of interface trap in graphene field-effect transistor (FET) detrimentally affects devices electrical characteristics. A work exist on extraction of interface trap density by modelling graphene field-effect transistor that takes into account the effect of interface trap states on the devices characteristics. It is found that most of the model for graphene devices does not takes into account the effect of interface trap states in the process of determines the performance of the device. This will lead to overestimation of carriers in the electrical characteristics of the device which will show the higher current-voltage (C-V) characteristic. In traditional way, extraction of interface trap density is based on trial and error method to solve the numerical integration. This conventional method is time consuming and inefficient. Hence, this study presents a method to extract the interface trap density presence at graphene-insulator interface in graphene FET. An automated self-consistent method for the extraction process is introduce as it is essential to determine the characteristics of the devices in high efficient. This extracted data is tested against calculated data, and excellent agreement is found between the extracted and calculated data.

Subtrack: ED - Industrial & Biomedical Electronics

ED-01: Effect of Eye Massage Device on Encephalogram Using Visual Task

The developments of technologies have created various types of gadgets including visual gadgets such as tablet, laptop and smartphone. These gadgets improved human lifestyle unfortunately, there is a drawback of these gadgets on human eyes such as eyesight problems. The common eyesight problem related to exposure of visual gadgets is asthenopia which the symptoms effect the brain, such that brain not in relaxation state. Eye massage device is an example of device that can reduce the effect of visual gadgets on the eyes, thus may be able to reduce the effect on the brain. By using encephalogram (EEG) to obtain the brain signal and electrooculogram (EOG) to obtain eye signal, the effects of eye massage device on relaxation state can be verified. The relaxation state can be observed by investigate the alpha and beta wave in EEG signal. Specific tasks are given to subject such as saccades, eye movement detection, smooth tracking and relaxing and blinking to increase the stress signal which mean increased the beta wave and lower the alpha wave. Only points O1 and O2 in the EEG were taken as they related to sightseeing function. After the implementation of eye massage device, the signals were recorded and analyse. T-test analysis was used to verify the signals that only pass 95% value of confident intervals and power spectrum density (PSD) was used to analyse the aceptable signals. Overall result shows that the eye massage device is not an effective device to increase the relaxation of mind.

ED-02: MATLAB Based Analysis Software for Learning Disability Children Assessment Based on Electro Interstitial Scan (EIS) Technology

Learning disabilities cover a wide range of condition, which connected with impairment including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism and Down syndrome. This impairment remains conventional because the treatment for this behavioural condition is diagnosed subjectively by using psychiatric test such as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IV) , which can cause an elongation in treatment because it took long time to discover either that children had learning disabilities or not. As Electro Interstitial Scan (EIS) technology appeared, there is some report insist that this technology can be used to categories between learning disability children with normal children. EIS result shows 3D image of scanned organ in the body with its respective bioimpedance value. However, there is no specific software that can analyse the EIS data, which can show the differences of learning disabilities with normal children in certain parameter. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop software by using MATLAB and Simulink, which can be used to analyse data in order to detect learning disabilities children by using the Electro Interstitial Scan (EIS) result as the input and to investigate the practicability of EIS technology in analysing children with learning disabilities. This project is expected to help the psychiatrist to assess children who have learning disability behaviour quickly.

ED-03: Fall Detector Using Kinect Sensor

A Kinect Sensor is used as a senior health monitoring, since the rate of falling in elderly are increases proportionally to the age of a person, which leads to been hospitalized. The objective of this project is to analyse the fall risk characteristics by using a Kinect Sensor, and assist the therapist in rehabilitation. The sensor involves the RGB Camera, and depth sensor. It able to detect and capture the view of any objects taken in the form of an image or video. A group of elderly people are experimented as sample, to undergo the Time Up and Go (TUG) Test. The image or video that been captured are then been analysed based on the information and recorded from the Kinect Sensor. While the experiment is held, the Kinect sensor is connected to a Personal Computer with usage of MATlab software to interpret the data obtained. In additional, a group of person who has normal ability to walk or middle age, are made as the reference in this project. Lastly, the data obtained and captured by the Kinect Sensor are analysed by using multivariable analysis method, since the aspects taken to evaluate the falling detector are multiparameter data. It is found that the trunk angle values of the elderlies are lesser to that of at middle age. Falling is likely to occur due to the lack ability to walk since the results of body bending and stability analysed from the sensor is high and low respectively.

ED-04: Vein Finder using near infrared light LED display

Drawing blood is a common procedure for a blood test or blood donation. One of the important procedures in drawing blood is locating the visible superficial veins. Vein is a blood vessel that carries blood (low in oxygen content) from various parts of the body back to the heart. Visibility of superficial veins is attributed to factors such as deposition of adipose tissue, fluid status, blood velocity, and vein diameter. To improve vein visualization, Near Infrared (NIR) light are commonly used. As obesity is one of the patient characteristics that decrease vein visibility, it is the intention of this project to determine the skin reflectance spectra using NIR Light Emitting Diode (LED) for the four categories of the Body Mass Index (BMI); underweight, normal, overweight, obese. The visualization of superficial veins with different number of NIR LEDs was also examined. The subjects were categorized by BMI and an equal number of subjects within each BMI classification was recruited. By using a non destructive technique known as optical diffuse reflectance, NIR LED (λ = 740 nm) beam from a fixed distance was directed to the skin surface at 45 degrees of incidence angle. The reflectance spectrum was recorded using Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES). Peak intensity of diffuse reflectance spectra was observed to be different among the four BMI categories. The absorption of the light by the deoxidized hemoglobin in the vein vessels resulted in a visible blood vessel pattern in a form of a series of dark lines. The image of the dark lines was captured. Visibility of the vein was observed to be better with increasing number of NIR LEDs. This study has shown that the degree of NIR LED absorb and reflect is very much related to BMI index and the visibility of the veins can be improved with increasing number of NIR LEDs.

ED-05: Design and Development of ROV for Underwater Surveillance

This project is mainly about designing and developing a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) for the purpose of underwater surveillance. The developed ROV is suitable for inspection of underwater building and bridge platform as well as underwater cabling and piping for oil and gas companies. The development begins by stipulating the design specification and consideration to narrow down the operating scope of the particular ROV. Four aspects have been considered when designing this ROV; mechanical, frame, actuator and power. The ROV is equipped with colour video camera with tilting capability which up to 180° vertical viewing angle and has a wide aperture lens to capture the adequate amount of light in the ocean so that the footage of the expedition can be recorded clearly. Additional kits such as sensors are used to detect the position and identify the exact location of the ROV. The designed ROV is a class 1 ROV which is pure observation vehicle that has at least 4 DOF for easing the navigation through the rough underwater environment. The design concept of this ROV is split into many parts; structural frame, propulsion system, control system, power system, communication system and video. Each subsystem is explained in details about the system used on the designed ROV by discussing and analysing the pros and cons and methods on how to improve the ROV’s performances.

ED-06: Development of a Portable Potentiostat for pH Sensor

A potentiostat is an electronic device that is mostly used in biosensor, especially the one that is based on an electrochemical sensor. Currently in the market, most of the potentiostat prices are expensive and not portable as the whole electrochemical instrument is bulky. To make a portable electrochemical instrument, a smaller and less expensive design is needed. Therefore, the objective of the project is to develop a portable potentiostat for pH sensing. A compact potentiostat circuit that consists of resistors, capacitors, transistor and IC UA741 is built. This circuit is then connected to a three-electrode electrochemical cell. The output is connected to Arduino UNO microprocessor to convert the analog signal to digital for data storage and data display using LCD. Several solutions with known pH value are tested and compared with actual value. As a conclusion, a portable potentiostat is developed and it offers convenient features for measurements outside of the lab.

ED-07: A Simple Wearable Antenna for On-body Application

Utilization of wearable antenna has risen due to the recent miniaturization of wireless device. A wearable antenna is a wireless communication technology which made up of textile for the purpose of flexibility, comfortable to wearer for on-body communication, low cost, light weight and almost maintenance free. This research proposed a simple design of wearable antenna for on body communication made up of jeans fabric (substrate) and copper tape (conducting part) which is easy to fabricate. The antenna operates in the frequency range of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz and was measured for the return loss, S11 property of the antenna using VNA. The return loss of the antenna measured agree well with the simulation in CST which is drop at less than -10 dB for the respective resonance frequency. The characteristic of the antenna is proven suitable to be used as on body communication based on the validation made by comparison between the antenna on free space and on body.

ED-08: Automatic Identification of Arrhythmias

The aim of this project was to evaluate methods for the detection of atrial fibrillation (AF), heart rate variability (HRV) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) that could be applied to clinical practice as a diagnostic test. The algorithms were developed using MATLAB, where the codes were designed to detect portion of a patient’s electrocardiogram that may contain the characteristics of either AF, HRV or VT. For AF, the detection was based on statistical techniques: root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD) and Shannon entropy (SE). The HRV and VT were detected using Pan and Tompkins algorithm. Using the data retrieved from the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation database and CU Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia Database, the algorithms were able to detect arrhythmias at 92% accuracy and 90% sensitivity.

ED-09: Development of Wearable Fall Risk Detector for Elderly

Fall is a serious problem for the elderly. Especially as more and more elderly people live their own nowadays or being left at the folk’s house which is not easy to cater. When falls happened, it will be difficult to detect the falls as soon as possible which will lead to serious injury and sometimes leads to fatal. Therefore being able to detect fall as early as possible is a key to decrease the risk of serious injury among elderly. There are many research and products that available on the market to detect fall among elderly so that immediate response could be taken. However, it is costly and high maintenance since it used outside technology. Therefore, the aims for this study is to develop a wearable device to detect fall among elderly using technology that is easy to obtain and maintain and also affordable. The device consist of accelerometer (ADXL345) as a sensor, Arduino Nano as a microcontroller, and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) as a notifier. A group of people was used to performed sets of different falls and ADL( daily life activities) to determine the ability of the device. The result show that the device can detect fall with 90% sensitivity and discriminate falls from ADL with 82.6% specificity.

ED-10: Development of an Automatic and Portable Phototherapy Garment for Jaundice Treatment

Phototherapy is considered as the most common treatment for jaundiced newborn, enabling light sources such as fluorescent lamp, halogen lamp, fiberoptic system and LEDs to reduce high bilirubin level in an infant. Phototherapy devices equipped in most hospitals and clinics nowadays require a delicate procedure that should be continuous with uninterrupted treatment for some period of time. The limited number of these devices in some developing countries and third-world countries will cause the treatment took even longer waiting period for the next patient. Thus, a portable phototherapy device is very much preferred in considering the current situation which the device enables the phototherapy treatment available everywhere and can provide comfort to the breastfeeding mothers during treatment process as well. An improved version of the previous design has been made on the Automated Phototherapy Garment (APG) which now uses blue LEDs instead of ultraviolet (UV) LEDs due to its efficiency in terms of light emission, minimal heat production, low in cost and a longer lifetime. The system consists of SMD blue LEDs that are mounted on a white flexible PCB, covered with an insulator material that will give maximum protection to the infant. An experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of blue LED compared to other conventional light source (fluorescent light) when employed in the APG

ED-11: Dual-mode Oximeter

Pulse oximeter is a medical device used to measure the saturation of oxygen in arterial blood (SpO2) by using non-invasive technique. It is really advantageous in taking the patient`s blood sample, where there is no need to take blood from one`s body and hence avoid pain and stress to the users. Basically, the SpO2 is measured from the oxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin, components of blood by transmitting the red and infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs) with wavelengths of 660 nm and 940 nm. Some of the light will absorb when transmitted into human`s finger and the balance is received at photodiode. The normal SpO2 in the body is between 95% to 99%. However, the accuracy SpO2 reading can disturb with the presence of carbon monoxide (CO) because of the affinity is higher than the oxygen to bind with hemoglobin. The presence of 10% of CO in the body can cause poisoning and toxicity human health. In this project, a dual-mode oximeter is developed to monitor the SpO2 and saturation of CO (SpCO) with additional near-infrared LED with wavelength of 810 nm. The device is developed purposely for firefighters usage during a fire mission, as they are commonly exposed to hazardous gases. The oximeter is placed to the user`s ear lobe and Arduino Uno is used as a microprocessor to calculate and process the data. The results are displayed on liquid crystal display and a buzzer is used as an indicator to alert the users when the detected percentage of SpO2 and SpCO are considered dangerous.

ED-12: P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Target Selection

People with neuromuscular disorders such as spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are deprived from their ability to communicate with their families and the caretakers. A brain-computer-interface (BCI) was used in order to re-establish the communication with the surrounding people by making use of the brain signals to control external devices. In regard to BCI systems, the P300-based BCI have been one of the popular studies. P300 evoked potential is a positive deflection in electroencephalogram (EEG) that occurs 200ms-700ms after the stimulus onset. It was evoked in response to the rare stimuli which occurs randomly. This project evaluates the relationship between the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the efficiency of the P300-based BCI in performing target selection which was computed using the peak-picking algorithm. The participants of this projects were required to gaze at one out of four target images presented on the monitor while all the targets flashed randomly and at the same time counts how frequent the attended target flashes. The presentation of the stimuli were divided into two cases that are short and long inter-stimuli interval of 700ms and 1000ms respectively. A single-channel electrode was used to acquire the EEG from the brain at Pz location and digitized at a rate of 1000 samples/second. The pre-processing of the signals started with a 16th order Butterworth bandpass filter and followed by the 10 points moving average filter to smooth out the signals. The results were computed using the peak- picking approach where it computes the difference the lowest and highest point recorded from the elicited P300 wave for each of the targets. The results computed was displayed to the user by lighting up the targeted item on the monitor for a given period of time along with an alert sound. At the end of this project, the user will be able to notify or alert the caretaker or people nearby to attend their requests with the help of the system.

ED-13: Miniaturized ECG circuit with wireless transmission

Cardiovascular disease is a life threatening disease. To diagnose heart problems, cardiologist will examine a patient`s electrocardiogram (ECG), which can be recorded using a Holter. As the Holter device is quite expensive, it is typically available only in major hospitals and loaned to patient for a period of only 24 to 48 hours, returning low success rate of capturing arrhythmia. Wearing a Holter for long period of time is also uncomfortable due to its bulky size and dangling wires. The aim of this project was to design and develop a small, light-weight electronic circuit that could capture, amplify and wirelessly transmit ECG signal to be stored in cloud storage. The use of cloud storage would enable easier analysis by cardiologist at remote location. The ECG circuit was designed with several stages: instrumentation amplifier with total gain of 7; to reduce common-mode noise while amplifying ECG signal; 4th order passive bandpass filter with cut-off frequencies 0.05 Hz and 40 Hz ; and finally a non-inverting amplifier with gain 100 to further amplify the signal. The ECG output from the circuit is transmitted using Bluetooth for recording and monitoring purposes. The data can be saved in PC, laptop or even mobile phone, making it possible for tele-monitoring of patients. This ECG circuit can be integrated with web-based assessment for early screening of patients, reduce congestion at hospital, decrease travelling time of patients and carers, leading to more efficient healthcare.

ED-14: Mobile Telecardiology Development for Connected Heart Care

Telemedicine is a fast-growing trend in medicine with new applications being developed each day, while telecardiology is a branch of telemedicine related to cardiac healthcare specifically. Although numerous researches have shown that this ingenious utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) to provide remote healthcare yields many benefits, there are several drawbacks to the current telecardiology systems available commercially. Some systems tend to be dependent on a particular ECG acquisition device, are cost ineffective, have a limited number of accepted ECG data storage formats that can be processed, and are incompatible for mobile device use, which diminishes the user-friendliness of these systems. In this project, a Universal Windows Platform (UWP) based telecardiology application is developed, which allows patients, physicians, cardiologists and technologists to simply log on to the application installed on any Windows device like a Windows phone, desktop, or tablet and carry out tasks like uploading ECG files without reliance on any particular ECG acquisition device, viewing medical data from the database, and providing medical diagnosis at anytime and anywhere. With its hardware-independence, cost effectiveness, acceptance of three standard ECG data storage formats (SCP-ECG, HL7-aECG and DICOM-ECG) as well as its suitability for mobile use, there is a good chance that this mobile telecardiology application could bring upon a positive impact in the delivery of cardiac healthcare services among people, especially in rural areas.

Subtrack: MA - Robotics, Mechatronics & Artificial Intelligent

MA-01: Development Of An Autonomous Crop Inspection Mobile Robot System Using Opencv Library
Student: AHMAD SAFWAN BIN ZAINAL ABIDIN, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Shukri bin Zainal Abidin

Autonomous agricultural mobile robot is widely used in agriculture fields. Now it is become the important mobile robot as it is used for monitoring crop in agriculture field. In this project, it is mainly about improvising and developing an autonomous mobile robot crop inspection. It is used for monitoring crop for maintaining the crop health and preventing the crop infection from spreading throughout the entire farm. Crop inspection robot is a robot that are used in agricultural area primarily used to inspect the condition of the crop whether in good or bad condition. Autonomous mobile robot crop inspection is the combination of computer vision system and mobile robotic system. In addition, the internal system of this autonomous mobile robot crop inspection is using image processing algorithm from openCV library and work on embedded PC called raspberry pi b+. The mobile robotic system used a robot arm and a mobile robot with 4 wheels. Both robot arm and mobile robot have each camera located at the body used for navigation and crop inspection. For navigation path planning, the line is detected from two-dimensional image that captured from camera and convert the image the captured using several algorithms for image processing technique. The software used in this project is python and also Arduino IDE for motor controller. Moreover, the integration between Arduino and raspberry pi is serial communication. Meanwhile, the image from crop inspection also used several algorithms for image processing technique to be converted and monitored by human.

MA-02: Battery Energy Storage System
Student: AHMAD SYAMIL FIKRI BIN ZAMRI, Supervisor: Dr. Kumeresen a/l A. Danapalasingam

This thesis is the result of a research to develop and design a battery energy storage system. More specifically, this system are using power bank or battery bank to supply electrical energy to a home AC load. Nowadays, electrical storage system are very important as daily use around the world because its provide some advantages such as stabilize the electricity delivery infrastructure and minimize the cost of meeting peak-load requirements. One of electrical storage system is power bank. Power bank or battery bank is consist of several part which the basic parts are battery pack, charger and inverter. Pack of battery as a maintaining power that allows to store electrical energy inside and will be used to charge up or to supply a different electrical device by providing suitable dc output. Charger works as a device used to put energy into a battery pack or simple says to charge the battery pack to its optimum range after the battery power is reduced by forcing an electric current through it. And lastly the inverter used to convert dc voltage from the batteries to ac voltage as an output to supply electrical energy to an AC load. Power banks have become increasingly popular as the battery life supporter of phones, tablets and any portable device that using battery. They come in all shapes, weights and capacities, from emergency credit-card-sized devices to the ultra-high-capacity. The goal of this project is to develop a design a high efficiency complete power bank system. The output from this system that will supply electrical energy to a home ac load is the expected result from this project with the data and acquisition that involving the temperature of the batteries by using Raspberry Pi where it is the system on a chip device that functions as an open source computing device.

MA-03: Magnetic Levitation Prototype
Student: AMIRAH AIYAH BINTI ASHARI, Supervisor: Dr. Shahdan bin Sudin

Magnetic levitation or well known as maglev is a system that has been used widely nowadays for transportation and other products, it is working either as suspension or repulsion system using a magnetic field. This study presents a magnetic repulsion system with a simple basic theory of control system to make a magnetic levitation prototype. The proposed system contain three solenoids that will be put on the right position in circular motion with a right angle of standing position that will point upwards and a ball with a suitable weight that want to be levitated upwards by the combination of magnetic field produced by the three solenoids. All the three solenoids will have same connection of circuit for each solenoids which containing a variable resistor to control the current flow since the voltage source will supply a constant input voltage. This study concludes with some experimental result of the magnetic levitation prototype which it can work accordingly to the basic theory of control system chosen. The ball used can be repulsed by the combination of magnetic field from the three solenoids and it will stay levitating stably while the current flow was controlled so that the distance of the floating ball can be observed. The theory of the system will be analyzed after doing the experiment to prove that the system can be working properly and the prototype can be produced successfully with the simple basic theory system.

MA-04: Interactive Ergonomic Chair
Student: AMIRUL AQMAL IKRAM BIN NAWI, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Zamani bin Md. Zain

Every human have different body posture and they have their own sitting position. To ease the physical pressure on human body, chairs with several designs were invented. However due to wrong seating position and lack in design of chair can cause pathological degeneration of the vertebrae disc which can lead backache. The purpose of this project is to design a chair that only required push of buttons to automatically adjust the chair positioning. The chair posture adjustments are driven by linear motors which attach at several joint of the chair, controlled by Arduino. These chairs also have several other sensors that could monitor the condition of user as it also works as platform for researcher to develop better chair design in future. Prototype 1.0 comes with two degrees of freedom (DOF) and Prototype 2.0 is equipped with 6 DOF. Prototypes 2.0 are actuated by linear actuator and DC motor and can be controlled using Human Machine Interface (HMI) for different chair settings to suit the user’s body characteristics. Array pressure sensor was used to get pressure data reading to decide the actuation for the user’s comfort. The chair has an active control function that can adjust the height, the seat back angle, leg rest the headrest. Prototype 1.0 was fully developed. However, some limitation making it different from the initial design, however all control system is working as planned. As for Prototype 2.0, adding more DOF and chosen correct actuators to improvise the system.

MA-05: Thermal Performance Analysis of Vaious Pin Fin Heat Sink Design
Student: ASYRAN BIN ANUAR, Supervisor: Dr. Fatimah Sham binti Ismail

Advancement in technology has rendered electronic devices as an essential for individuals. As technology develops, the fabrication of electronic appliances is improved even better, in terms of size, in particular. Generally, there are many approaches to overcome thermal issues in electronic devices. One of the known approaches commonly used is heat sink. This study focuses on electronic appliance which is a representative of a heating element that produces high temperature. Due to the improvisation of electronic packages, specifically in terms of reducing the size of electronic components, has led to thermal issue. Thus, in order to overcome the thermal issue, heat sink with optimum design is proposed. In this study, comprehensive comparison analysis of various heat sink designs is analysed using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The maximum heat temperature is evaluated based on the arrangement of the heat sink which are staggered and inline pin fin heat sink.

MA-06: Advanced Recycling Machine (ARM)
Student: BONG YU LIANG, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdul Rashid bin Husain

Solid waste management is one of the crucial issue in many countries, including Malaysia. The studies show that Malaysia produced 25,000 metric tonnes of solid waste a day and this amount is expected to rise to 30,000 tonnes by the year 2020. The amount of waste generated continues to increase due to increasing population and development, and only less than 5% of the wasted is being recycled. The aim of this project is to improve the current recycling system in Malaysia by building an Advanced Recycling Machine (ARM). The ARM is an vending-machine like automated system that allows users to recycle their used items in any quantity at their convenient anytime. The machine consists of two parts which are hardware components including electronic and mechanical component and software in the embedded controller. In the electronic part, Radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader is used for authentication of personal data. Then, the machine is equipped with capacitive proximity sensor that will identify the type of recycled material placed in a special compartment in the ARM. An Internet of Thing (IoT) ESP8266 module is connected with Arduino to send the data to the Microsoft Azure database. In software part, a Window platform application is built to allow users to check their recycling status online and make redemption of the collected point. Based on the developed ARM, the system is able to collect 10kg of material and able to detect cans and plastics.

MA-07: Therapeutic Robot For Dementia
Student: HAMIZAH BINTI ANUAR, Supervisor: Dr. Mohd Ridzuan bin Ahmad

Today’s world population is mainly composed of massive number of senior citizen who survive in their life until old age and majority of them are battling with health problems especially dementia. They are losing the ability in movement and performance in communicating and thinking where these problems affect their whole daily life. Regarding this matter, this project is conducted in order to help dementia patients to delay their health decline by developing a therapeutic robot. The robot aims to focus on improving important aspects which are hand muscle, communication and emotion by applying selected force sensitive resistor sensors and servo motors to enable the robot to do movements which are raising up hand, nodding and shaking the head so that the robot can be attractively responsive to human’s interaction. Arduino Mega controller board will read and process the sensors that are attached on the head, hands and back of the robot to trigger the movement of servo when one of them is touched by the user within a certain level of force. The main target to test the product of this project by conducting a real experiment on dementia patients. From the experiment, their health performance data can be obtained and the outcome of this robot can be determined. Further development has to be improved after acquiring feedbacks from dementia patients and hospitals so that the product can be commercialised. Last but not least, the therapeutic robot can be widely implemented to help dementia patients especially in Malaysia.

MA-08: RainGuard For Car, Convertible Car Roof Extension
Student: KHEW WEI HOONG, Supervisor: Dr. Lim Cheng Siong

The aim of the project is to develop a car roof extension hardware system. In Malaysia open-top convertible cars are not as popular as they are in western countries due to the hot and rainy climate in Malaysia. The interior of a car damaged easily when exposed to too much sunlight or moisture. Common convertible car will remove the car roof while this project will do the opposite, which is to provide more roof area. On a rainy day, drivers and passengers will face a common problem that is the difficulties of staying dry in the process of entering or exiting their vehicle, especially when they open the car door or dealing with the umbrella. The project was designed to solve the problem by adding extra awning on the vehicle that extend sideways to provide space and shelter for the users. The principle is similar to how our power window works. In this project, the design involves using wireless keyless entry system to remotely control the car roof mechanism. The system can also be activated by a button inside the vehicle. The roof extension can extend sideways, sheltering the opened car door, and comes with a storage compartment to store wet umbrella.

Student: MOHD. FAZRIL BIN AHMADI, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Herlina binti Abdul Rahim

This project was conducted to find an alternative and effective way of waking up a person from their night sleep. It also aims to investigate the stimulus that can be used to wake up a person as well as to study the suitable way to make the user stay awake instead of going back to sleep. One of the important source of the findings was the interview which involves five students which were known using alarm clocks and having trouble to wake up in the morning. Articles related to waking up in the morning were also used as the source. Findings imply that sound, light, motion and vibration are stimuli that can wake a person up. In order to stay awake, the environment need to be less pleasant to sleep and some stretching and light workout need to be done to feel more refresh. Thus, from all the findings, an effective alarm clock was designed and produced. The special features of this alarm are the unconventional way to kill the alarm. It required the user to play “Simon Says” game to make the user come to their senses and a few actions need to be done before the alarm turned off. This prevent the user from going back to sleep after turning off the alarm. The alarm itself produce uncomfortable environment for the user to sleep when it goes off, added with some light exercise to kill the alarm, the user surely feel refresh when waking up in the morning.

MA-10: Intelligent Trace Attendance System
Student: MUHAMAD NURHALIM BIN MOHD TUNIN, Supervisor: En. Mohd Shukri bin Abdul Manaf

This project is designed by using Radio Frequency (RF) module, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system using card ID to make attendance system. Before this, the attendance system by using list name on the paper is quite traditional because need to make sure be signed or marked. It also will waste the paper if always need to print out the list name. In the future, the technology can make the attendance system more easy to use and user friendly to all places. This project was running by software that will construct a table list of name based on the databases that record the attendance. Firstly, the system will ask to enter name, user card ID and position. This procedure is quit important so that the system will recognize the user ID whenever scan card ID to enter the place. After all the process is ready, the users can use the card ID to enter the place that will closed by automatics gate. If the card ID is match with the system in database, the automatics gate will open. It also will show a greeting to the user card ID on the display. This system will automatically trace the attendance and record the attendance in term of the table. If the card ID is wrong or not register in the database, the gate will not open. This project records the attendance faster. So, for the conclusion, RF module and RFID system can improve the traditional attendance.

MA-11: Light Up Streetlight Using Piezoelectric
Student: MUHAMMAD AMERUZZAINI BIN ABD RAZAK, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Ruzairi bin Abdul Rahim

The use of fuel like gas to created electrical energy for daily purpose has caused nature disasters and the increase of living standards. Result from that actions, the life of flora and fauna will be affected and that also includes the cost to generate electricity. Therefore, an effort need to be created to save energy and the Mother Nature. Inspired by renewable energy project of German, this project is a system where its produce electrical energy from an applied pressure such as pressure from a footsteps, pressures from the palms or to be more specific for this project, pressure being produce by the vehicles when driving through the roads. This project uses energy from vehicles and change it into electrical energy which will be used to light up the street lights. For more saving purposes, this system is a smart system whereas it can control the time to light up based on the two variables.

MA-12: Smart Courier Robot
Student: MUHAMMAD FIKRY BIN ZAINUDDIN, Supervisor: Dr. Fatimah Sham binti Ismail

Since the advent of robotic technologies, many human tasks have been placed by robot or machine. Recently, robots become more technologically advance and autonomous while they learn how to do jobs faster and better than humans. The objective of this project is to design a small scales courier robot for office operation that can deliver files, documents or letter from one officer room to other rooms. This smart courier robot consists of two stages of development process. The first stage is to design and fabricate the mechanical part of smart courier robot. The second stage is program development for movement and navigation to the assign location using artificial intelligent (AI) technique. Six IR sensors are used to detect line on the floor that will guide the robot movement. The inputs of the location such as call and sent button are developed to give instruction to the Arduino for driving the motor to any assigned location. The robot is installed with sonar sensor that can detect the obstacles in front of it. The designed courier robot can go to the destination assign based on the distance of destination from the robot and it can set its own priority.

MA-13: Smart Fire Alarm System
Student: MUHAMMAD SYAHIR BIN ABDOL RAZAK, Supervisor: Dr. Herman bin Wahid

Fire alarm system is a system that gives warning to the surrounding people to escape or evacuate from the house or buildings during the fire accident. The system could be able to reduce the number of death if fire happens. Unfortunately, with the current fire alarm system, the number of death is still high due to some deficiencies of the system. Therefore, the fire alarm system needs to be upgraded along with the development of technology so the number of death due to fire can be reduced. It has been identified that main cause of death caused the fire is due to smoke inhalation rather than burns. Hence, this project was mainly done for safety purposes, where fan system can be operated to suck out smokes from the fire place once the sensor detects the presents of carbon monoxide or smokes. The system consists of input unit and output unit. In input unit, the sensor are located at certain location to easily detect the present of smoke and in the output unit, there are fan system to suck out smokes from the place, LED guide to guide the victims evacuate and the GSM module to directly notify the owner when the fire happen. A small scale model for this system has been developed to represent and simulate its functional operation. Analysis was also conducted to rescale the model for actual implementation and it is envisaged that it could be applied successfully.

MA-14: Artificial Hand Actuated By Pneumatic Air Muscle
Student: MUHAMMAD ZULFAQAR BIN ZAKARIA, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Amir Shamsudin

Robotic hand is a technology that can imitate human hand for multi degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion. It can be used in the field of medical such as prosthesis hand or in industrial field as an end effector. Currently, robotic hands movement are mostly driven by servo motor which produce more unnecessary weight and lower gripping force as the motor used to drive are smaller and could only produce small force. The lower gripping force will limit the amount of force that robotic hand could handle, meanwhile the heavier robotic hand because of motor weight will make prosthetic hand user to feel more uncomfortable wearing them. The purpose of this project is to develop a robotic hand with 5 DOF that can perform several human hand gestures actuated by McKibben soft actuator which generally known as pneumatic muscle.3D printer is used to print the parts of robotic hand using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) a common thermoplastic as its material. Pneumatic muscles are placed inside the robotic arm to actuate the finger movement which connected through cable strings. MEVT electro pneumatic regulator works as control valve, to control the actuation of the pneumatic muscle so the finger can be moved as desired. Arduino microcontroller is used to program and control MEVT valve through electrical signal. The concept of pneumatic muscle inside the robotic arm pulling tendons to move fingers shows the imitation of how human hand works.

MA-15: Development Of Haptic Soft Exoskeleton
Student: MUHAMMAD ZULHELMI BIN KAMARUDIN, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Amir Shamsudin

According to statistic reveals in National Stroke Association of Malaysia (NASAM)’s website, stroke is the third largest cause of death in Malaysia. For a person who has suffered stroke, it’s fundamental to regain at least the movement of the hand in order to increase their quality of life. This research mainly focuses on haptic feedback of finger rehabilitation. Many type of rehabilitation device in the market might very good but to install in rehabilitation centers is too expensive. Due to higher rates of stroke patients every year, it will become a burden to therapy center to help them. To help patients by minimize cost to get further rehabilitation treatment, new rehabilitation device is developed with haptic feedback for user. Haptic is used to give a feedback to computer system as well as feedback for user or patients to indicate the whether they have complete a task. By using special input or output devices, user can receive feedback from control system. This control system consists of the finger motion such as angle bending of finger, force produced, gripping, and pinching by using microcontroller. In this project, ten pieces of flex sensor, five force sensitive resistor (FSR), and five vibrators were implemented as a haptic feedback integrated with a developed graphical user interface. The flex sensor was developed in order to cover the bending motion of a human finger, and having a high manipulability in data. It can manipulate bending angle up to 110 degree, which is suitable for finger and hand exercise rehabilitation. The system was evaluated and tested successfully. By showing the recovery progress to the patients it will motivate the patient and will get faster recovery.

MA-16: Mobile Robot for Cleaning and Inspection of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System
Student: MUSAB UMAIR BIN ZAHRIN, Supervisor: En. Ahmad Ridhwan bin Wahab

Nowadays, Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) ducting system are widely used and can be found mostly on every building. Moreover, with current situation where many building are been build, there must be a need to maintain and clean it. Thus, this project proposes to achieve three objectives. The first objective is to design cleaning tools (cleaning brush and vacuum cleaner) that able to adapt with a different size of ducts. Second objective is to develop algorithms to control robot movement and to control the dynamic of the cleaning mechanism. The third objective is to develop software that enables the user to monitor and control the robot through computer/laptop by using real time monitoring system. The method use to achieve those stated objective are by designing a robot that able to fit in the targeted size of duct, the robot consists of cleaning mechanism such as brush to wipe out the dust and vacuum to collect the wiped dust. For controlling the robot, user interface will be used in order to allow the user to control the robot from the computer. The user interface also will be having a live stream video from the robot to ease the user to monitor the robot’s progress. The controller use for this robot is Raspberry Pi and the user interface will connect to the Raspberry Pi through Wi-Fi.

MA-17: Relieved Foot Massage
Student: NOR SHAHYRA BINTI AZIZ, Supervisor: En. Mohd Shukri bin Abdul Manaf

We often overlook the health and care of our feet compared to the other body parts. Every day we have been oppressing our feet in many ways such as using shoes that are not suitable to accommodate our weight or standing for a long time. Eventually, feet will experience excessive pressure if there is no action was taken. Onwards, it will affect the whole body health. The objective of this project is to develop a system in which to help people realize the relation between feet health with other bodies through the heartbeat rate. This project is important in helping us to monitor and stabilize the heartbeat rate from time to time. The system will operate using pulse sensor which is placed at your fingertips to track heart rate and displays your heart rate through a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Notification will be given if the pulse sensor detects the abnormalities in heartbeat rate. Light Emitting Diode (LED) flashes and leg massage machine will work. Hopefully this tool can help users to monitor their heart rate from time to time.

MA-18: Automatic Planter
Student: NURUL HANNAH BINTI MOHD YUSOF, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Johari Halim Shah bin Osman

This is a study of alternative way instead of traditional hand planting. An automatic planter can be generally defined as a machine that can plant young trees automatically. This project is highly expected to be one of the most convenient automatic planters because it is going to utilize cheaper hardware in order to develop it soon. Most of traditional planters can cut the cost of building an expensive machine to drive the automatic planter. For that reason, this project is expected to be economy, useful and give a lot of advantages for the traditional planters and it has the potential to be a competitive product in the industry. This project is mainly about developing an automatic planter that utilizing used item such as used motorcycle and also used cart which are the items that almost all traditional planters have, to execute the planting process using mechanical and electrical approach at the same time can help to save cost, time and energy for the users. This project is projected to be executed under some constraints. The constraints help to develop this project by specifying the scope of works so that the project has a specific purpose of goals. This project is developed through a duration given and the workplace, the mechanism and the electrical drive will be scaled down to make it possible. For example, to replace the usage of motorcycle, the project will be using two wheels construction to drive the automatic planter.

MA-19: Smart Roofing System For Dried Food Manufacturing
Student: SITI NURSYAFIKAH BINTI NORDIN, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rosbi bin Mamat

Dry salted fish is one of common delicacies in Malaysia since long time ago. Commonly people will have dry salted fish as their complement in their meal especially for Malay people. Malaysia not only supply dry salted fish locally, but also imported it to other country. Malaysia produces 1.5 million tons of fish and seafood per annum and 89% of production came from inland capture and marine. It shows that aquaculture industry is quite big and has their own role in supporting economy of Malaysia. In developing country as Malaysia, role in every sector such as aquaculture industry would be really helpful in stabilizing economy and it also contributing for aqua tourism as one of the attraction for tourist who visit to Malaysia and would like to know deeper about uniqueness of tradition and food in Malaysia. In order to make the production full filled customers’ demands as Malaysia is a country supplying dry fish and seafood to a numbers of different country, I come out with my project that aimed to increase the productivity yet still make a quality as the first priority which at the same time reduce the harm or risk of the worker while producing the dry salted fish as they exposed to change of climate weather in Malaysia, and lastly to make sure that the product is safe to consume by the consumer. Other objective in this project is not only to achieved all the above goals but also to make sure that this project can help in productivity, quality, safety but still has a worth return of investment which means reasonable, and affordable for initial set up and continuous cost as most of the production is done by people staying along the shores in rural area. This project also try to help in improving economy of small manufacturer of dry salted fish and make the process for production easier and reduce the cost for manpower.

MA-20: Snack Vending Machine with Packing System
Student: UMI FAZIERA BINTI ZAINUDDIN, Supervisor: Dr. Anita binti Ahmad

Vending machines are a widely used automatic machine that provide the comfort of buying food and beverages with quick service, cheap price and most importantly it is available almost anywhere now. However, it is considered as a rare sight to see a vending machine that pack the items bought in one single bag, if one wishes to buy more than one item. This project is built around the stated weakness, which was to include a packing system in a snack vending machine. The structure of the casing and basic formation of the machine is built by using board mostly while some of them were 3D printed. Gears and springs were chosen as the dispense mechanism for the snacks, while a specially designed cup dispenser was built to dispense a cup one at a time. The main control board for the whole system is the Arduino Mega board with 25 pins as inputs/outputs. As for the payment system, a RFID system is used. The end result of this project is that the machine has succeeded in packing the items purchased by customers in one cup.

MA-21: Robot Arm Motion Control Based on Kinect 2D Motion Detection
Student: AbdulRahman Ali Abdullah, Supervisor: PM Dr. Abdul Rashid b. Husain

For this project, a direct interface between human and robotic arm is developed. The robotic arms resemble a simple human arms motion in 2D with 2 Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) for each arm. The corresponding movements requires two actuators for each arm applied in the shoulder and the joint. This project will aim to control the robotic arms directly by using the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor that provides a natural user interface (NUI) which presents a direct interactive control between the user and the robotic arms. The Kinect sensor will process the captured motion to a skeletal tracking software and forward the data to the actuators using a certain microcontroller. This type of control is really unique and will benefit the field of mechatronics due to the reduction of the number of sensors as there is no sensors applied on the arms in order to get capture their motion. It is also cost effective and very convenient to use. The use of Microsoft Kinect sensor will help to facilitate further projects in the future in the industrial, medical, entertainment fields and etc.

Subtrack: MB - Computer System, Multimedia & Control Simulations

MB-01: Automated Thermal Control and Monitoring System In Pipeline
Student: AHMAD FAIZ BIN AHMAD, Supervisor: Dr. Fatimah Sham binti Ismail

Process control is very important in most industrial applications as it helps to maintain consistent product output. One of the aspects that requires such critical control is thermal control inside a piping system. In order to fulfil this need, this project aims to design and implement an automated thermal control and monitoring system inside a pipeline. A DC motor with a ducted fan unit is chosen to control the temperature along the modelled pipeline by varying its speed using technique known as Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). The speed of motor will response according to the varied temperature by controlling the hot air flow rate along the pipeline. An Arduino microcontroller which has been proposed in this project, applied a control loop feedback mechanism which identified as PID controller. PID controller is tuned and simulated using MATLAB software in order to obtain the best control response for the system. Calibration of sensors are done using industrial instruments to ensure the results and system response are accurate. The real-time temperature and speed response of motor are monitored with the aid of graphical user interface (GUI) designed using MATLAB software. In conclusion, a microcontroller using PWM technique with PID based control mechanism and real-time monitoring system using MATLAB software is expected to achieve good thermal control inside the modelled pipeline.

MB-02: Environment Control Agriculture On Mushroom Production
Student: AHMAD ZULZHAFRI BIN MOHAMAD ZUKI, Supervisor: Dr. Salinda Bunyamin

This research mainly focusing on Environment Control Agriculture that is a system that applied automatic control of the environment factors such as temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide and water by using microcontroller. The aim of this project is to develop an automatic ECA device for mushroom production house in order to increase the mushroom production by using ESP8266. In this project, ECA device will be develop to increase the production of mushroom using ESP8266 Wi-Fi module, DHT11 temperature sensor and MQ135 CO2 sensor. This system can significantly change the old method in cultivating mushroom and also producing higher quality mushroom. By using this device, the temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide level inside the cultivation farm can be monitor through the internet. This system apply the concept Internet of Things (IoT) that enable users to monitor the environment condition inside the cultivation farm anywhere whenever accessing the internet. Besides that, the device also equipped with automatic mechanism to control the environment condition inside the cultivation farm to maintain the optimum conditions. The control mechanism is fan and wind barrier that will reduce the temperature when being triggered. Temperature is the significant factor that need to be control because mushroom unable to grow if the temperature higher that 35°C or lower than 25°C. This process is very important to avoid damage the mushroom bags. Environment control agriculture is still not familiar among local farmers due to insufficient knowledge and exposure. The purpose of this report is to provide information and knowledge to all farmer that will help then in using this system.

MB-03: Translator Glove for Mutism and Hearing Impaired People
Student: AMIR SYAFIQ BIN AHMAD AZAM, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Hafis Izran bin Ishak

People with disability of hearing and speech use sign language to communicate with other people. However, sign language that usually used by this people is an unfamiliar language where not all people have been taught of this sign language. Generally, the sign language uses hand gestures which have specific motion to represent ‘languages’. This project aims to convert hand gestures with the used of an electronic device that will translate the sign language and display it into alphabets. Therefore, the device can help the hearing impaired and mute people to learn the sign language with the accurate bending of fingers through real life testing. The scope of this project focuses on the sign language used in Malaysia which commonly the Malaysian use Bahasa Malaysia to communicate with each other. Hence, the sign language for this project is in Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia (BIM). First step to create this project, a study about degree of bending of the flexible sensor was constructed by developing an electronic device. Flexible sensor is used to measure and capture the gesture movement of the fingers which is the value of resistance of the flexible sensor depends on the bending of the fingers. The more the fingers’ bend, the higher the value of resistance of the flexible sensor. The value of resistance of the flexible sensor then will be processed by microcontroller which the microcontroller had been programmed by using Arduino IDE’s software. Then, the LCD display will show the alphabet. This project is potentially can reduce the communication gap between the hearing impaired and disability of speech people with the normal people.

MB-04: Home Automation and Security System Using Bluetooth
Student: AZMALIHAH BINTI MUHD ZAIN, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rosbi bin Mamat

In this modern era, there is no denying that home automation is now gaining popularity nowadays and has become very common where every appliances can be switched on and controlled at the tip of your fingers. These are all done in order to improve the convenience, comfort and energy efficiency in peoples’ live. Besides that, home automation is also intended to make human’s life better by having a mobile phone that can control electrical appliances anytime they desire. The idea of this project will also benefit the elders or the handicapped as controlling the appliances might be difficult for them. Therefore, in this project, an automated home control system is implemented. For the hardware implementation, this project utilizes Bluetooth and Arduino Uno as a platform to control the appliances which can be integrated together with a smartphone. In this prototype, a light bulb will function as a lamp to control its brightness while a fan will be used to control its speed. For security purpose, a magnetic sensor will be installed so that it can alert the user whether the door is open or close. If security mode is turned on, a buzzer will sound to alert the user when there is an intruder. While for the software implementation, a mobile Bluetooth application is used to give and execute instruction to the electrical appliances.

MB-05: Motor Vehicle Driver Alert System
Student: CHIN ING SWEE, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Noh bin Ahmad

Malaysia is among the top 25 most dangerous countries for road users, with 30 fatalities per 100,000 individuals, according to research by the University of Michigan [1]. The aim of this Student Final Year Project is to solve the accident problem in Malaysia by create a Motor Vehicle Driver Alert System. Motor Vehicle Driver Alert System is a real-time system that continuously monitoring the driver using Machine Vision approaches. In this system, image processing is used to detect the face by applying HSV threshold to the RGB image captured, eye position using summation of dark pixel array from bottom of face and calculate percentage of drowsiness using number of eye closed frame divide by total number of frames captured. An audio based alert system is used instead of output with only buzzer. The output of this system could be replaced by another effective output with some modifications. NI myRIO-1900 is used to process the image captured throughout the time and then send out the different audio outputs to alert driver.

MB-06: Real Time PID Controller for Speed Control of A DC Motor with Deadzone
Student: FARAH AMIRAH BINTI MIAN, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zaharuddin bin Mohamed

This project involves designing a PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller for a real-time control of a DC servo motor with deadzone. The PID controllers are designed based on the LabVIEW program and specifically for the DC servo motor. The real-time speed control of a DC servo motor is realized by using a DAQ device namely NI-USB 6008 by the National Instrument. The PID controller is tuned using the Ziegler Nichols method. The speed of the DC motor is required to trade a desired speed. The system responses are analysed in terms of various time response specifications such as settling time and overshoot.

MB-07: UTM Library Mobile Application using Android Platform
Student: FARAH BINTI ABDUL MUTTALIB, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Zamani bin Md. Zain

The year 2010 marked as the starting point of rapid advancement in Post PC era, communities from all over the world start adapting this technology into their life to perform various task ranging from checking their social media to formal on job presentation. This technology has been supported by various mobile application which allows human to perform their desired task. UTM Library is currently using a third party mobile application in aiding user to browse on the materials located in UTM Library virtually. To improve the operation of current application, a specific mobile application focusing on Android platform was developed. The development for this mobile application involves building of Android mobile application and database system. The app development mostly covers on user interface which involve items such as buttons and edit text forms which allows user to interact with the application. Other than that the app development also involves setting of features to be used such as internet and camera permission. To ensure the smoothness of the application, the programming for the app has to be specific from placing the button to making it function with the desired task. From database point of view, three tables consisting information on users, books and borrowing status was build and PHP codes is used to communicate with MySQL database. The mobile application was developed to allow materials browsing from UTM Library, renewing borrow duration activity, book borrowing activity using the mobile app and also checking on history of materials borrowed from the library.

MB-08: Surveillance Quadcopter with Vision and Tracking System
Student: HENG JIA SEN, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Johari Halim Shah bin Osman

Surveillance drones are increasingly used around the world in this new era of technologies. The drones are very useful in many fields, especially for military purposes. Canada and United State even implement surveillance drones in law enforcement. Their police use this technology to fight against crimes more efficiently. However, this technology is still new and fresh in Malaysia. Therefore, this project is carried out to help the publics to improve the security of an area such as shopping mall and parking lots. The surveillance system is functioned as a portable movable CCTV which gives a security guard the easier way to patrol around an area. Besides, the camera attached to it is able to capture photos by controlling the PC on the other side. The captured photos are then undergo image processing through Visual Studio in PC so that the drone is able to target and track the suspicious person based on the signal sent from PC. The original photos captured can also help the police to arrest the criminals. With this system, the security of a society can be improved.

Student: HIDHIR LUTFI BIN ISA, Supervisor: Dr. Lim Cheng Siong

Nowadays, in every country have a tourisms place. It turned out very important in the modern age and become a trend. The tourist spot are being developed all over the country to attract people in and outside the country to develop their source of income of the country. But, when the tourist come to the place or country, most of them are facing the communication device because they use different band or frequency for their GSM phone. Moreover, high possibility that no cell tower and Wi-Fi internet connection around on the countryside to contact your partner. GoMax, a multi-function radio frequency device that enable the user still connected with their travel partner with long range of communication with text-based walkie- talkie without any need for an external cell tower. In GoMax, it has two main features which is SMS and location sharing that basically can opens up to more ways of communication with your friends. The GoMax will pair with your smartphone wirelessly using a Bluetooth module that has built in the GoMax. This device is compatible with any type of smartphone run on Android or later. The smartphone have been designed an application that act as a user interface (UI) for GoMax. In the project, the expected outcomes is that device can enable the users to text and share their location through their smartphone with anyone that has the GoMax. As a summary of this project, this planned design can help in solving the telecommunication services related problem for traveller.

MB-10: Smartbin
Student: LIANA BINTI MD YAZAM, Supervisor: Dr. Shahdan bin Sudin

In Malaysia, there are growths in population, with increase in population, the scenario of cleanliness with respect to garbage management is degrading tremendously. The overflow of garbage in public areas creates the unhygienic condition in the nearby surrounding. It may provoke several serious diseases amongst the nearby people. It also degrades the valuation of the area. To avoid this and to enhance the cleaning, ‘Smartbin’ is proposed in this thesis. In the Smartbin system, the level of garbage in the dustbins is detected with the help of Sensor systems which is load sensor , and then ultrasound sensor are used to detect the range between user and dustbins. Microcontroller is used to interface the sensor system with the dc motor. A dc motor wills operate if the ultrasound detect the exact range, and it will not operate if the load sensor detect level of garbage fully. This will help user to use the dustbin efficiently.

MB-11: Automated Watering System for Indoor Plant
Student: MOHAMAD AZEEM BIN MOHAMAD AZHAR, Supervisor: Dr. Khairul Hamimah binti Abas

Nowadays, plants have played an important role in our daily live. Plant have its own uses to the human as it provided source such as food and water. Other than that, plant also helps in reduces gaseous pollution. One of its generation which is indoor plant have also been widely used in our daily life and human livings can obtain benefit from it. For indoor plants, it needs a good care as it can be affected by several factors such as temperature, humidity, soil moisture and others. Many people were unable to keep their plant from wilt due to some factors. The main factor that contributes to wilting plant is due to the insufficient of humidity level in the plant. Therefore, this project has been developed in order to increase the efficiency of the watering system. In this project, a soil moisture sensor has been used to measure the moisture of the soil. As the soil moisture level is low compared to the voltage threshold, notification will be sent to the database where the user need to access it by using internet. The Intel XDK board has been used as microcontroller and the Ethernet cable was used in this project in order to connect it to the database. In the database, the interface of the website can be adjusted using Notepad ++. An interaction between the user and the plant can be achieved as the website provide a button where the watering mechanism can be activated. If the button was not pressed, the watering mechanism automated after a certain period based on the level of plant humidity. In a nutshell, the plant can have a longer life period as humidity of the plants remains in an optimum level.

MB-12: Flood alert system with autogate
Student: MOHD ALEEFF BIN HASHIM, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sallehuddin bin Ibrahim

Flood is one of the natural disasters that cannot be avoided. It happens without our permissions and cannot predicted what time it will occurs. Previously, there are a few commercial floods warning system that has been developed and designed. Unfortunately, the warning are plan on specific area such as major cities and it is quite expensive. Therefore, Flood Alerting System with Autogate (AUTOFAS) was developed to solve this problem. AUTOFAS will designed in low range of cost and the system should be programmable. The proposed for this project is where the system will send a warning signal to the users and buy a time to make people on the occur area to take an action. AUTOFAS a system where it will control a gate that block the flood from entering houses area. In this project, a servo will represent as an Autogate. The sensor and some algorithm will interface the servo to make the servo control according the situation. There are three types of warning which is when the river is rising, warning level, and dangerous level. At the end of this project, perhaps AUTOFAS can reduce the number of victims and the loss of properties involved.  

MB-13: Quadcopter System for Indoor Application
Student: MOHD QAMARUL ARIFIN BIN MUHAMMAD BASRI, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Amir Shamsudin

Quadcopter is one of unmanned aerial vehicle that increasingly popular in various field due to the fact that it has handy advantages such vertical take-off and landing system, lightweight body frame and quadrotor system. Besides, quadcopter offers a great balance between cost and performance. Those advantages are needed to help human in performing high risk and limited-space job such as bridge inspection, monitoring high infrastructure or even in search and rescue mission. However, the quadcopter ability and agility are being a constraint in congested environment making it harder to control manually. In addition, operator distance assumption between quadcopter and obstacle often become a major factor for drone crash due to human parallax error. Thus, low-cost onboard obstacle sensing and avoidance system will be added to commercial quadcopter for indoor application purpose or any congested environment where individual have limited access. The proposed system design is implementing six ultrasonic sensors placed on top, bottom, right, left, back and front of the quadcopter to sense obstacle conveniently. In this project, the distance data from ultrasonic sensors used to tell the quadcopter how to react depending on the obstacle condition. Thus, having a well-designed obstacle sensing and avoidance system will push the quadcopter ability to its optimum and help to provide actual distance to the operator. Hence, this project is expected to be an aid to the existing quadcopter system which makes the quadcopter more easily to maneuver and directly can avoid from crashing especially in the congested area.  

Student: MOHD RAQIB BIN AMIRUDIN, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Norhaliza binti Abdul Wahab

A Neural Network (NN) controller for lab scale tower crane is proposed to control the sway of load involving movement of trolley about x-axis only. When the crane start to operate, it is effected by strong inertia. Then, the load start to sway and as the trolley move through x-axis, the angle sway of load increase. Thus, it requires longer time to stabilize the load after the crane trolley reach its desired position. This work proposes NN controller trained with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in order to suppress load sway for tower crane system. The design of NN controller uses an experimental method to obtain input and output data to design NN controller. Using experiment method, complex mathematical equation can be avoid.

MB-15: UAV System for Navigation and Mapping
Student: MOHD ZULHELMI BIN ZAKARIA, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Amir Shamsudin

In this project I am using available Quadcopter, which is parrot AR.Drone 2.0. I am not going to change the system and programming build in this Quadcopter. That is because build in programming on Quadcopter system are using ROS instruction, which is high level programming and not easy to understand. After testing this quadcopter i realize that there two major thing in order to improve it in term of navigation and mapping system.

MB-16: Development of an On-Board Diagnostic System For Motorcycle
Student: MUHAMMAD AMYRUL HAFIZ BIN SULAIMAN, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ir. Hazlina binti Selamat

Nowadays, mostly all the modern motorcycle engine has a control unit. The control unit acts as a control all the aspects and system of motorcycle known as the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The control unit has proven to be useful to help in optimizing engine performance. Unfortunately, the existence of ECU means normal motorcycle workshops does not do engine repair and maintenance without help from manufacturer. This project proposes the development of On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) system for motorcycle (80cc to 250cc). The OBD helps the user to understand the motorcycle status and malfunctions by indicating the Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC). Embedded on-board diagnostics system consists of master slave communication. Sensors are interfaced to slave microcontroller for monitoring various parameters of system. Master microcontroller produces diagnostic trouble codes (DTC) to indicate the causes of the fault produced in parameters of system. The OBD shows the motorcycle system status, including motorcycle speed, engine RPM, throttle position, battery voltage and pump pressure. The software also has been developed to use as interface between user and the ECU of the motorcycle.

MB-17: Smart Donation Box
Student: MUHAMMAD ANWAR BIN NOOR JAMIN, Supervisor: Dr. Anita binti Ahmad

This project is done mainly to help the public to get tax exemption easier. Donation is one of the ways for the public to receive tax exemption but it needs a solid proof of donation. Smart Donation Box (SMD) is an automated portable donation box, which ease donation process. The SMD includes a money acceptor, an Arduino Mega acting as a controller, a display and also a receipt printer. Basically, the box will accept the money through the bill acceptor, which acts as a receiver of the banknotes, will determine whether the banknotes is genuine or not. If it is genuine, a monetary signal will be sent to the Arduino to count the money and the banknote will be stacked in the storage. Each banknote gives out specific pulse based on the value whether it is RM10, RM20 or RM50. Therefore, the Arduino Mega will gives signal to LCD and display the amount of money donated. Another signal is sent to the printing devices for receipt printing process.  

Student: MUHAMMAD FADHLI BIN MOHAMED JOHARI, Supervisor: Dr. Salinda Bunyamin

In modern times, development of various kind of sensor growth tremendously, but the information or data that gained from the sensors are too many. It is going to waste such beneficial information. This thesis purpose an analyzed of big data such as temperature and humidity in order to develop an automated cultivation system for oyster mushroom. The main contribution of this work is the application of data mining in this system control, which is for decision making of oyster mushroom environmental control. This is achieved by using classification techniques in data mining and using WEKA tools. The crucial part is collection of proper data using the data logger including temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide. An important step before starting data mining is data preprocessing, because some of the data is poor data, and then filled the missing value with appropriate values. It is found that this approach data collection, data processing and knowledge discovery can summarize the result of statistical analysis of data for this project. The control system in this cultivation of oyster mushroom will be more intelligent by integrating data mining technique in making decision to control the environmental surrounding.

MB-19: Modelling and Controller Design of Industrial Pneumatic Actuator System using Discrete Time PID and Fuzzy PID Controller
Student: MUHAMMAD FAHIM BIN ABDUL HALIM, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Mohd Fua'ad bin Rahmat

Nowadays, pneumatic actuator especially pneumatic actuator cylinders are widely used in factory floor automation and robot application due to large power output, relatively low cost, low weight, easy handling, and clean operation. The modelling and controller design of pneumatic actuator is very important because of its characteristics such as high dynamic hysteresis nonlinearity, high friction forces and dead time which lead to difficulty in accurate position control. The System Identification approaches was used in this project to get the model structure of the system. Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX) model was used because the system was a nonlinear system. Besides that, nonlinear model have more flexibility in capturing complex phenomena than the linear model of similar orders. In this study, the two controller are compared that is Discrete-Time PID Controller and Fuzzy-PID Controller to improve the system performance. Currently, the PID Controller was widely used in industry. Alternatively, PID Controller with Automatic Tuning is used for design control system and it gives good responses. Next, the Fuzzy-PID was used because it provide better performance than PID Controller. PID used in this Fuzzy-PID Controller is Ziegler-Nichols method. In addition, the aim of this project was to improve the positon control of pneumatic actuator as well as its performance using the NARX structure model, DT-PID controller and Fuzzy-PID Controller.

MB-20: Modelling and Controller Design of Industrial Hydraulic Actuator System by using Self Tuning Fuzzy PID as Controller
Student: ZULHISYAM BIN MD SALLEH, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Mohd Fua'ad bin Rahmat

The Twin Rotor MIMO system (TRMS) is an aero-dynamical system that similar to a helicopter. This system has two degrees of freedom which are pitch and yaw. In this project, only one degree of freedom will be considered which is pitch control. This system is a non-linear system that needs to be controlled by using controller. In this project, only two controllers are considered for control of the system namely Proportional Integrated Derivative (PID) and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controllers. These two controllers need to be designed to produce good response. Once the design is completed the controllers are tested in simulation and real experiment. The performance between the two controllers will be compared in controlling the system.

MB-20: Modelling and Controller Design of Industrial Hydraulic Actuator System by using Self Tuning Fuzzy PID as Controller
Student: MUHAMMAD HARRIS BIN KHALID, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zaharuddin bin Mohamed

The Twin Rotor MIMO system (TRMS) is an aero-dynamical system that similar to a helicopter. This system has two degrees of freedom which are pitch and yaw. In this project, only one degree of freedom will be considered which is pitch control. This system is a non-linear system that needs to be controlled by using controller. In this project, only two controllers are considered for control of the system namely Proportional Integrated Derivative (PID) and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controllers. These two controllers need to be designed to produce good response. Once the design is completed the controllers are tested in simulation and real experiment. The performance between the two controllers will be compared in controlling the system.

MB-21: Water Intake Reminder
Student: MUHAMMAD RIDHUAN BIN RAZALI, Supervisor: Dr. Khairul Hamimah binti Abas

People tend to neglect their health in pursuing their daily activities, especially when water is the main concern for keeping their body well hydrated. Most people do not know that taking insufficient amount of water can affect our metabolism to maintain bodily functions and to avoid diseases that related to dehydration problem, especially in current Elnino phenomena. So this project is to create a reminder device that can help people to monitor their drinking event, with the help from the interface of the Android software that has been created so people can set their amount of water that need to be consumed, the interval time that the consumer need to be alert about the drinking event and time for the user to use the device. The device is mainly a water tank that consists of the servo motor to control the overall water needed to flow into the water tank and the water pump is to control water out into cups or bottle that is used during drinking. The amount of water flow out that has been preset by the user in Android system will be controlled by the touch sensor and ultrasonic sensor. Liquid crystal display (LCD), buzzer, and Android is used to give notification to the user when the interval time of the preset value has reached with buzzer will on and the Android system on the phone will initiate sound or vibrate. This whole system is able to manage and remind people to take sufficient intake of water and maintain their body at hydrated state.

MB-22: Multilevel Parking System with Monitoring and Reservation Using PLC and SCADA
Student: NUR ATIQAH ADLINA BINTI RAZALI, Supervisor: Dr. Herman bin Wahid

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system have been recognized and mostly applied in the automation world. Treatment plants, tanks, reservoirs, stations, factories are examples of field that implemented these systems. This project was conducted to bring the parking system into a new level where the existing parking system has been upgraded. Monitoring and reservation in the parking system can be developed with PLC and SCADA based. The capability of monitoring the current state (real time) of an indoor parking and reserving the parking spot were the speciality of this system. The representation of the system was shown in the built prototype. The major components of the system prototype were the PLC Omron CPM2a, Infrared Sensors, Relays, Touch Screen Monitor, LEDs, DC Motor and etc. PLC Omron CPM2a as the main controller in this system and by using software CX-Programmer to control it. The input of this system is infrared sensor while the output is the LED and the display on the monitor screen. CX-Supervisor was used to design the graphics and linking the SCADA system to the PLC. Touch screen monitor was connected with the PLC by using USB cable and act as the GUI for the parking system. From the touch screen monitor, the vacant parking and whole parking area in each level can be monitored on reserved. Any error or fault occurred during the system works need to be corrected to achieve the objectives.

Student: NURSYIDAH BINTI MAT OTHMAN, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Hafis Izran bin Ishak

Grass is a one type of plant that has monocotyledon shaped leaves that grow from a looming policy stick. The grass is planted as a crop for medicine, food and farming. However, the grass growing in the agricultural area of a main crop and disrupted the growth could be breeding animals such as snakes, centipede and scorpions. Prior to this, a few technologies use Drones for crop and weed spraying fertilizer application or plants. However, the technologies available in the market are expensive and cause small farmers could not use the technology. Therefore, small-scale drone’s technology designed to meet the needs and budgets of small farmers and may be used by housewife. This technology produced by the alteration of the Drones to weed the grass in the courtyard home or such places that have the grass. Some analysis or known as experimental needed in this renovation process. Among them, testing of the remote control in controlling the movement of Drones. Users need to be skilled in controlling the remote control to avoid accident. If fails to control it, the drones will damaged in terms of motor, frame, and could harm to the public. In addition, testing of the weight that to be carried by the Drones. Firstly, the weight can cause the drones cannot fly and the possibility of motor will be damaged. In addition, the size of a pesticide tank depends on the ability of the Drones. This will limit the volume of the tank including the type of material used to prepare the public placement of the tank. Arduino Uno applications are use and remote control (Infrared) used in creating the technology.

Student: NURZARINA BINTI OMAR SHARIF, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Shamsudin bin Hj. Mohd Amin

Mobile phones are everywhere nowadays. They have become as essential as electricity. This project continues the previous work, GoMax and aims to create a gadget that can increase the ability of mobile phones as communication device by enabling them to be able to function without relying on cell towers. The gadget uses BeagleBone Black as the processor and enables the mobile phones to communicate with each other using radio frequency (RF) waves of 433MHz. As for the connection between the gadget and phone, Bluetooth technology is used. The gadget is compatible with all Android smartphones. The User Interface (UI) for the gadget is developed using MIT App Inventor 2 and Mobile Atlas Creator (MOBAC), both of which can be obtained on the internet without any additional fee. Current result shows successful exchange of messages and sharing of location between two smartphones. However, the Android application is unstable and often crashes after sending location data to the other user.

Student: RADEN MUHAMMAD MU'AZ BIN MUHAMMAD MUN'IM, Supervisor: Dr. Lim Cheng Siong

The aim of the project is to develop a Red Green Blue Depth camera- based Automated Guided Vehicle robot. Nowadays many Automated Guided Vehicle system utilizes line-following sensors for navigation. This method is navigation is limited to preset paths consists of magnetic strip on the floor. Another type of utilizes laser guide system with laser rangefinder sensors, to eliminate the need of preset paths by using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping for navigation. These kinds of robot is significantly more expensive compared to line following robot. n this project, RGB-D camera is proposed as a low-cost alternative to laser rangefinder. RGB-D camera, while performing at lower but acceptable performance to laser rangefinder sensors. The robot will feature capability to be manually tele-operated with camera feed from another laptop. The robot will be able to build online map with Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping, and be able to save the map for static map navigation mode with Adaptive Monte-Carlo Localisation. The robot also features path planning and obstacle avoidance. User designate an arbitrary point on the map, and the robot plans the best path, then move towards the path. The path planning is online, meaning that if a new obstacle is introduced, a new path is created and the robot will follow new path to avoid the obstacle.

MB-26: Modeling of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Using Neural Network
Student: RUQAYYAH BINTI OTHMAN, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Norhaliza binti Abdul Wahab

The purpose of this project is to develop a model that can improve the performance of the wastewater treatment system. The conventional system has found to be a non reliable system due to the limitation and low effluent quality. Because of that, membrane bioreactor technology was produced to replace the conventional system. However, there are also drawback of this technology such as fouling, high energy consumption and high cost of maintenance, but the major problem is fouling phenomena. Fouling can be described as the substance from the wastewater that can form clogging and reducing the permeate flux. In this project, the focus is on reducing the fouling by considering the transmembrane pressure (TMP), voltage, and also permeate flux where there are correlation between them. The idea is to model the system by using radial basis function neural network and optimize the model by using genetic algorithm (GA). After that, a neural network controller will be designed and test by simulation. The simulation process will be done using Matlab. The performance of the system is measured by the MSE, MAD and correlation coefficient. The close loop performance of the system is improved by using the proposed control system.

MB-27: Microbioreactor Control System
Student: TAN JIA HOU, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdul Rashid bin Husain

In fermentation process, bioreactor is a widely used device. The most used devices to optimize such process are bench scale bioreactor and shake flask. A new and better alternative way must be found to carry on the optimization process since their running cost are relatively high and the high amount of labour required. Recent years, a smaller bioreactor of volume less than 1millilitre have been used by scientis to carry out those experiment and it became known as microbioreactor. This small volume sizes device able to bring a lot of benefits and potential to optimization fenmentation process. Researches are trying hard to design a best microbioreactor which able to be used later as acceptable industry standard since microbioreactor stills in development phase. Most the previous microbioreactor projects are design by using data acquisition card from National instrument. This is because simplicity in programming environment which provided by NI DAQ, it is being user friendly and many other high end features. This has help a lot of engineers could settle it for alternative and cheaper way. In this project, the goal is to implement microcontroller as DAQ to provide microbioreactor system controlling, data logging and monitoring of temperature, speed, and dissolved oxygen control for microbioreactor. This microbioreactor system will be totally microcontroller based and using electronic circuit to achieve the objectives.

MB-28: Industry Application of Vehicle Convoy System
Student: TANG MIN CHIEK, Supervisor: Dr. Shahdan bin Sudin

Accidents based on collision can happen at any industry environment due to many causes. For example: age of the driver, physical stress, driver fatigue, lost control of transport and etc. Vehicle convoy system is a smart systems which can reduce the rate of collision happen during any transportation process regardless of place and time. The system can be used in any vehicle to provide a safety distance between any two vehicles inside an industry working environment. The aim of this project is to develop a small size prototype vehicle convoy system for industry purpose. This system consists of ultrasonic sensor to form a safe distance between vehicles and the distance is calculated to prevent any waste of time during the transportation. To detect the position of the vehicle in industry, this system provides Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation to update the location of vehicles used to transfer goods or other raw materials in industry in order to make sure that the goods are delivered safely to the destination. As this is an initial prototype, it only can follow the motion of the first vehicle .A vehicle will lead the path of the motion while the following vehicle depends on the first vehicle directly. It is expected that this system can be further developed into a full featured convoy system for industry usage.

Student: YUEN SHEH HOR, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yahaya Md Sam

The number of Alzheimer and mental retardation patients are rising each year. Simultaneously, the number of this patients who were reported missing increasing as well. This is because they do not recognise the way home. Besides, kidnapping cases are increasing too worldwide especially in those countries which have economic crisis or financial problem. Furthermore, crimes happened in car park occupied one-fifth of the total crimes happen. Shorten the time searching for car is the best way to solve this problem. Therefore, a mini palm-size of Global Positioning System (GPS) device namely Personal GPS Tracking Device (PGTD) is needed to solve this social malaise. The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS for real time tracking using Google Maps. This project was divided into two parts which are tracking part and displaying part. For tracking part, it is composed with GPS and Arduino UNO microcontroller for navigation purpose. The GPS used to provide information about the real time coordinate of the people and send information to displaying device via microcontroller. While microcontroller is used to interface with GPS receiver. After obtaining the location data, the data will be sent to displaying device. In this project, GPS receiver will be located along with target serving as receiving the GPS coordinate. The data received is sent to the control unit through serial port. After the data processed, the location of the user can be viewed in Google Maps. To create convenient for users, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) will be created that can show the location of target in Google Maps.

Subtrack: MC - Instrumentation & Sensors

MC-01: Non Destructive Test For Steel Structure (Ultrasonic)
Student: ABDUL RAHMAN BIN BAHARUM, Supervisor: En. Nasarudin bin Ahmad

Today, the industrial field has become more competitive due to the advancement of the technology. The consumer base also has grown tremendously which cause supply-demand market to shift towards demand. Hence, industrial sector needs to find out a way to ensure their product is free from problem. However, to closely monitor the output of the product through visual inspection cannot provide the underlying problem within the product. So, Non-Destructive Test(NDT) is one of the approach to overcome this problem. For this project, the NDT will be based on ultrasonic. Ultrasonic provide accurate reading due to the nature of sound wave that propagates through the solid. The methods of NDT used in this project is Time of Flight(TOF). Next, the simulation is done on this project to find out the TOF. The simulation will be based on COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. Then, the experiment is also conducted to check the validity of the proposed method. The experimental setup is basically using two ultrasonic sensors. One of the sensor will act as pulser which serve function as transmitter, while the other one will become receiver. The signal from receiver is amplified and reading is taken from oscilloscope. After that, the obtained data will be arranged in matrices form. Then, sensitivity map is produced by filtering and thresholding the data. Image construction is produced based on the sensitivity map obtained. Finally, based on the image constructed, the flaw of the specimen could be deduced.

MC-02: Advancing the Detection Of Nitrate And Contamination In Natural Water Supply
Student: ALDIN BIN JULPIN, Supervisor: Dr. Mohd Amri bin Md Yunus

The increase in nitrate concentration in natural water resources become a major contribution in water contamination nowadays, and yet the contamination detection still involve laborious procedures. The main goal of this project is to reduce the overall cost for water detection system using planar electromagnetic sensor and to improve the current data acquisition system using graphical user interface (GUI). The attributes of low cost are implemented in the use of sensor and microcontroller which is used to control the program and data storage of output frequency. For a better control of the frequency values which used to estimate the amount of contamination in water, the Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) function generator is control by the GUI which is interfaced by using National Instrument LabView software and Arduino IDE. This system detect the nitrate contamination level based on the impedance measured by the sensor where water with high quality condition which is safe to consume has lower electrical conductivity and vice versa. Lower electrical conductivity in the water shows higher value of resistivity and this will show a good correlation between the level of nitrate and the sensitivity values of water sample. From this project, it is envisaged that a low-cost and portable water contamination detection system could be developed which would benefit the society in the future.

Student: AMIRUL ASRAF BIN MISRUN, Supervisor: Dr. Mohd Ridzuan bin Ahmad

A prototype of Capacitance Liquid Detector by using an Integrated of a Micro-needle with Microfluidic enables to measure the capacitance value of liquid. This project describes the system in detail from conceptual idea to hardware implementation. The device works by implementing the sample of liquid to be inserted into the device. Then, the electrode will produce the AC voltage and constant current where these currents will be transmitted to the microcontroller (Arduino UNO) through the electronic circuit module and display the value of capacitance on LCD display. The concept of this project is to develop a new method to detect the capacitance of liquid. To verify this project system, a decade capacitance box has been used to ensure the readings that displayed on LCD display are similar to the multimeter reading. This project has been used three different samples which deionised water, pipe water and yeast cell sample. For the yeast cell sample, it has been used with different concentration (low, moderate and high) and compared the value of capacitance of healthy cell and dead cell. Throughout this project, it can be concluded that the capacitance of liquid has been measured successfully with simple, cheap, real-time result and portable of the device.

MC-04: Power Switch monitoring and control via radio frequency
Student: KESAVAN A/L KANNAN, Supervisor: Dr. Kumeresen a/l A. Danapalasingam

The advent of technology would make human life more convenient, easier, and meaningful. Lots of new inventions and solutions are developed with the combination of technologies in several fields. Electric and Electronic related system are undergoing major development periodically as its become a big part of our life. A building with large number of elctrical devices and appliances require many switches to be installed all over the buiding for the purpose of controlling. The users of the building need to access each and every switch in the building in order to turn it ON manually. This action might lead to inefficient electrical power usage. Thus, all the switches are linked wirelessly to a master control panel where all the switches can be monitored and controlled at a single place. The master control panel is installed at the entrance of building so that users are able to monitor the ON and OFF status of all the switches and to control these switches wirelessly. This master control panel is interfaced with the switches via radio frequency contolled by a microcontroller. All the switches are attached with RF modules in order to receive input signal from master control panel.

MC-05: Non-destructive testing(NDT)-Strength of Concrete using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity(UPV)
Student: MUHAMAD UMAR FARUQ BIN ABD RAHMAN, Supervisor: En. Nasarudin bin Ahmad

Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the process of inspection or evaluating materials or component without destroying the functionality, serviceability and the structure of the testing product. NDT are widely used in industries, manufacturing, and fabrication and in service inspection to ensure the quality of the product. There are several type in performing the NDT process such as ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), Rebound Hammer and etc. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) that widely used needed complex analysis due to the real result that need to show. The common issue of the UPV process are to analysis the data of the defect area. To perform the analysis there are some requires procedure and methods are be able to cover the analysis. The simulation and experimental approach is needed to ensure the data are accurate. COMSOL Multiphysics software is used in simulation part by modelling the product according to the actual testing. The varies position of transmitter,Tx and receiver,Rx are located to get the correct data. The experimental is performed after that by using the data from simulation as a guidance. In the experimental process data was collected by using the personal computer (PC) that connected via serial communication. The signal from the transmitter and receiver that been amplify using amplifier were recorded to make an analysis. When the data was collected, the defect area was constructed and detect by using sensitivity map technique.

MC-06: Vehicle Cabin Air Quality Monitor
Student: MUHAMMAD KHAIRIE IDHAM BIN ABD RAHMAN, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yahaya Md Sam

In this period reached unhealthy air quality in the cabin of the car and it can be dangerous to the user in a long time if controlled from right away. This is due to the release of gases, dust particles, smoke or smell released to astmosfera independently and successfully entered the car cabin space or car interior materials were produced that could harm to consumers if they reach high levels. Among the pollutants can be detected in the car cabin including carbon monoxides, particles and dust and harmful gases as a result of internal material that may be low due to the car heat from courting sunlight. Study shows unhealthy air quality will have a variety of health problems in the system of respirasi as a merostot Lung function problems, shortness of breath, fatigue, eyestrain. Hot weather gives physical pressure to the human body in terms of heat and humidity conditioning. Impact on health may be from moderate to which can cause death for example due to heat stroke, sore throat and dry skin. Therefore, a prototype product has been created to provide air quality readings to car users. This tool uses the dust detector, PM 2.5 carbon monoxide Detector and the DHT EXPLOIT 22 that detects temperature and humidity in the car. The results of this project using diplotkan PLX-DAQ which Parallax microcontroller data acquisition of additional tool for Microsoft Excel and graph plotted right in real time. Air quality results are also compared with PM10 because Malaysia use this reading to measure air quality.

MC-07: multiple robot control using RF signal
Student: MUHAMMAD SOFWAN BIN ZAMRI, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Herlina binti Abdul Rahim

This project is mainly on developing a control system where a number of robots are being controlled by a microcontroller that is interconnected by a radio frequency (RF). Normally, one microcontroller only control one robot at a time. The initiator to this topic is a series of question on how can we control a number of robots by using a microcontroller. Since RF is one of the mediums used as a communication signal to communicate between micro controllers just like WIFI, Bluetooth, Infrared and many more, it is wise to test the sustainability of each signals used and also the protocol it used to communicate between the transmitter and the receiver. Different frequency could bring different effect on the sustainability of the signal such as the maximum distance it can reach. This RF system is then used to control a shoal of fish robots which are called Air Swimmers (AS). Each AS contains Helium to enable it to fly in the air. The AS is equipped with a servo that acts as its caudal fin to make it manoeuvrable. The system works by an Arduino which is connected to an RF signal, in which it links all the AS together by an address for sending and receiving information. . This system enables the Air Swimmers to move around in a hall and even make a pattern on its own. The market of this product is when companies are requesting for an attractive gimmick event for the opening ceremony of their event.

MC-08: Development of the System To monitor Humidity and pH of the Organic Fertilizer
Student: MUHAMMAD SYARAFI BIN MAHMOOD, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdul Rashid bin Husain

In the fertilizer making industry, a few of the most important parameters to be measured are the water content and the pH level of the fertilizer. At the moment, for most of small-scale fertilizer producers, these parameters are monitored manually and this may introduce error in reporting the values that might disrupt the production. In this project, a new fertilizer monitoring system will be developed where the two parameters to be monitored are moisture and pH level. In this newly developed system, the moisture level will be measured by (what sensor) and the pH is measured by using (what sensor). Both or the sensors will be interfaced to the Arduino UNO and the readings will be transmitted to a server via a Bluetooth module and Wifi connection. Ethernet Shield W5100R3 is used to send the data to the internal server and the Bluetooth module is used to transmit data to the computer. The newly updated values of the parameters will be uploaded to the server and the reading can be monitored through a GUI on computer or an apps in smart mobile phones. Humidity sensor and its module are used to collect the data of the fertilizer whereas the pH probe and its module are used to read and measure the pH reading of the fertilizer. A 16x2 LCD screen, which can be found on site, is used to display current reading to the farmer.

MC-09: Automation System in solar panel`s application using PLC (analog)
Student: MUHAMMAD WAFI BIN MUHAMAD RAZAK, Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sallehuddin bin Ibrahim

Nowadays, programmable logic controller (PLC) is widely applied in industry sector and normally uses application of digital world PLC to control mechanical movement (assembly line) to enhance the production`s efficiency and accurate signal processing. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is system monitoring that help people control or monitor the whole system easily in detection any problem. In this project, PLC`s application will be explained by using analogue and digital system. Whereby the solar panel system operates with PLC OMRON CP1H-XA40DR-A and creates an automation system to approach the main objectives in reducing overall energy consumption in daily life. The system deliberate by a ladder diagram and the programming by using software CX-P while SCADA, the data acquisition implement using CXSUPERVISOR. This system is combination solar panel and powers supply (TNB) whereas the power supply output voltage is based on the output voltage of the solar panel to get a certain voltage. This case using analogue output of PLC that representative`s power supply (TNB) as variable voltage and this automation system is programmed with consider various parameter and case to avoid any wasting.

MC-10: Enhancement of Water Interface Design for Fibrous Capillary Irrigation System in Water-Saving Agriculture
Student: SYAHMI AFIQ AQMAL BIN AINI, Supervisor: Dr. Mohamad Shukri bin Zainal Abidin

In this 21st century, an issue of water crisis was arose where the usage of fresh water is increasing worldwide. In agriculture, water is the most important for irrigation process. A system developers in irrigation can reduce many liters of water from wasted. An enhancement of water interface design for fibrous capillary irrigation conducted to supply an optimum water to the crops for irrigation and reduces wasted water in irrigation for this project. The method use is capillary irrigation because in this project, it implements an underground system to supply optimum water to the crop while reduce unnecessary water to the crops. Moreover, this project consists of obtaining the actual crop evapotranspiration value using selected sensors to identify the crops’ water needs. Simulation of time variation of water flow and wetting pattern in using the new water interface was successfully simulated and visualized by using HYDRUS. Thus, a controller will be implemented to obtain the data. This system will give a new water interface design in order to supply an optimum water to the crop only depends on its needs to control and save water.

MC-11: Flow Analysis using Wire Mesh Sensor
Student: ZULFADLI BIN KAMARUZZAMAN, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Ruzairi bin Abdul Rahim

Various phase flows are present in many industrial applications, such as crude oil processing. The effectiveness of the operations and equipment are decided by understanding its capability to operate under several flow conditions. Therefore to understand the multiphase flow and to validate or improve the prediction of some theories and models or simulation such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), reliable experimental data are required. Therefore, this project attempt to provide data from flow analysis using tomography technique by the means of wire mesh sensor (WMS). A 16 times 16 WMS is used to measure the phase distributions in the process column by measuring the electrical conductivity. The data obtained will be control and process by Arduino microcontroller. Then the data will be visualised using MATLAB interface. The visualised data (tomogram) should be sufficient enough to provide the understanding of the flow behaviour.

Subtrack: PA - Power Systems & Energy

PA-01: Harmonic Effect on different XLPE Cable Sizes
Student: ABDUL HAKIM BIN MUHAMMAD NASIB, Supervisor: Dr Md. Pauzi bin Abdullah

Due to the development of power electronics and propagation of non-linear loads in industrial power applications, power harmonics and their effects on power quality are a topic of concern. One result of harmonic effect is on power cable which contribute to power losses and can lead to power system damage. Previous study suggest that bigger cable size bring out more power losses due to harmonic effect. This project studies the relationship between power losses and size of XLPE power cable in the presence of various power harmonics. Different XLPE standard cable sizes are used in the project. Practical harmonics data is used to analyze the power losses impact on different cable sizes. The analysis is focused to find the optimum size of XLPE cable by means of getting the minimum power losses with the consideration of the cost of different XLPE cables sizes. The results obtained from this study can be used as reference for future study.

PA-02: Static Security Assessment of Power System for 5 Buses and 14 Buses Test System
Student: AHMAD AMIRUDDIN BIN PAKHURDIN, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Fadli bin Rahmat

Power system security must be concern all the time to ensure that the system always operate in a good condition. To make sure that the system operates in a good condition, security assessment must be done on the current system. There is many ways to assess the security of the power system. One of the ways is to make sure that there is no problem occurs at the transmission line such as power overload and no voltage violation occurs at bus when one of the transmission lines out. If there is a power overload in the system, contingency analysis must be done on the system to secure back the system. To secure back the system, transmission line of the system must be rank first according to its severity level by using appropriate assessment method. (N-1) contingency analysis have been used to assess the security level of the test system. In this project, Matlab software is used for the analysis and IEEE 14-bus system is used as the test system. This project only focus on the transmission line capacity in the system and the voltage changes at the bus. as a result, the security assessment of the test system will provide opportunity for improvement in the near future.

PA-03: Controlled Islanding of Power System to Mitigate Widespread Blackout
Student: AHMAD KAMAL IZZUDDIN BIN MOHAMMAD FAUZI, Supervisor: Prof Ir Dr Mohd Wazir bin Mustafa

Nowadays, controlled islanding is very important to the power system restoration phase. This is because the major blackout in North America and Europe are among the worst power system failures in the last few decades. There are many negative effects of the blackout. One of the method to mitigate blackout event is controlled islanding. The goal of this project is to maintain stable areas of the faulted power systems. A cascading failure may force the power system network separate into uncontrolled islands. The formation of uncontrolled islands can cause blackout due to power of generator and power of load demand in each islands does not balanced. This project focusing on splitting strategy of power system network by considering the minimun load-generation imbalanced. In this project, the system will be separated into stable islands which is the power of generator and power of load demand are balanced each other even though in faulted areas. The splitting strategy is carried out by disconnecting the suitable transmission lines which give minimum load-generation imbalanced to each islands. By using this method, the power of generator and power of load demand in each islands will be balanced and the blackout can be prevented. Besides, it also can help to reduce the effect of the fully system breakdown. For the validation purpose, the methodology is implemented and tested on the IEEE 9 bus and IEEE 30 bus system by using Power World simulator software.

PA-04: Load Shedding With Excitation Control
Student: AHMAD SANUSI BIN AZLAN, Supervisor: Zaniah binti Muda

The operation of power system needs to provide continuous power supply and fulfill the requirements of all consumers. Thus, voltage stability and voltage control of the power system is important and must be done wisely. The steady state voltage in distribution systems can be properly controlled by coordinating with the excitation control using synchronous condenser. Synchronous condenser is the active shunt compensator that provides continuous adjustment of the reactive power in both under excited and over excited mode. Voltage collapse is the process if the post-disturbance equilibrium voltages are below acceptable limits. This study features the overview of load shedding schemes in solving the voltage stability problem. IEEE 24-bus system is used as test case for the power system network. All simulation and analysis are done on the Power World software. There are three issues that must be addressed before performing load shedding, which is the location of the load to be shed, the amount of load to be shed and the time for load shedding. Critical bus in the system is determine through PV plotting and Newton-Raphson power flow and is set as the location of load shedding to take place. The implementation and coordination of load shedding scheme with excitation control increases the stability of the power system. Their performance is analyzed and evaluated.

PA-05: Effect of Fault Current on DC Distribution and AC distribution System by Using PSCAD
Student: AHMAD SYAFIQ BIN SAMSUDIN, Supervisor: Zaniah binti Muda

With the advancement of high capacity power electronics technologies, most notably in high voltage direct current (HVDC) applications, the concept of developing and implementing future transmission networks through a DC backbone presents a realistic and advantageous option over traditional AC approaches. It is assume that there will be installation of the DC distribution system in houses and buildings in the future. This is due to the high reliability and efficiency of the system DC system. In convenient system, the fault that occur in the system such as short circuit in distribution line will results in severe economic losses and reduces the reliability of the electrical system. This study consist of simulation of 14 bus AC distribution and DC distribution system. The DC distribution system is modelled with power electronic converters such as rectifier, DC/DC converter and inverter. Each of the system are developed and modelled in PSCAD software. The fault current is simulate in the both systems and the voltage at customer end is analyse. The result of the simulation show that the DC distribution system has advantage compared to the conventional AC distribution system such as improved power quality and voltage drop characteristic.

PA-06: Harmonic Distortion Reduction Using Passive Filter
Student: AMZARUL FARIS BIN AZMAN, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Azhar bin Khairuddin

Nowadays, electricity become one of important things in our lives. Power system quality is the main factor that be concern to ensure the long lifespan and continuous operation of many electrical equipment and devices. Power system harmonic is one of the issues that must be taken care of in power system assessment. Harmonics in the power system have increased substantially due to the increasing use of nonlinear loads in recent years. This problem occurs primarily in commercial and industrial buildings, where the usage of nonlinear loads is very high. The nonlinear power supplies draw current in high amplitudes short pulses, which unfortunately create distortion in electrical current and voltage. The objective of the project is to develop harmonic mitigation technique by the installation of passive filter. MATLAB SIMULINK software is used in designing customer’s electricity side and simulation for harmonic distortion analysis. Simulation has been conducted with and without filter installation. The selected network was modelled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The total harmonic distortion (THD) is successfully reduced to achieve the standard limitation that provided by TNB when passive filter is installed in the circuit.

PA-07: Energy Cost Reduction in Commercial Building Using Tariff Management Approach
Student: AZEZAN BIN MD SAAD, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohammad Yusri bin Hassan

The statistics of energy consumption in the world show a rapid increase give a high concern from many people in order to preserve the environment. Furthemore, the electricity price in Malaysia also increasing due to increasing of natural gas and fossil fuel prices. Hence, further study need to be conduct to investigate the possible energy reduction strategies. The main objective of this project is to study and analyze the energy usage in MPJBT building and identify the possible energy reduction opportunities. Energy audit will be conducted in MPJBT building to analyze the energy consumption. Some rules can be apply in the buildings like switch off the lamp at certain time and use high temperature of air-conditioning. While, by replaced the current lighting system from T8 fluorescent lamp to T8 LED lighting system or T5 energy saving lighting system can reduce the energy consumptions. From the analysis, the estimated cost reduction for energy consumptions is 27% if we change from tariff B to C1. This project shows that using tariff management approach we can reduce cost of energy for a commercial building and further reduction can be achieved if this method could be applied to another 15 Majlis Perbandaran buildings in Johor state. Lastly, a new user-friendly interface is developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 2008, which is called as eZ-Energy Calculator to identify the efficient energy cost reduction strategy in a commercial building.

PA-08: Energy Harvesting Charger
Student: CASSANDRA GAIL R AL GOPERA, Supervisor: Faridah binti Husin

In today’s world, the concern of sustaining finite energy sources has become serious. There are numbers of party trying to sustain finite energies by developing renewable energies. However, generating electrical power does not necessarily come from renewable energy or non-renewable energy. There is still another way to generate electricity which is by energy harvesting. Energy harvesting is defined as small energy that is absorbed or captured from the surrounding of energy sources, and then converts it into a useful energy. The purpose of this project is to produce a charging device that can charge small devices such as mobile phones by converting heat or pressure from human body or any object. The performance of the project is studied with two different types of variables; pressure and heat. Pressure is varied according to the how fast the footsteps are applied to the Piezoelectric sensor whereas heat is varied by the temperature difference experienced by the Thermoelectric sensor. Through the analysis, it is shown that the amount of energy harvested depends on the temperature of the heat that applied to the Thermoelectric sensor and also the frequency and pressure implemented to the Piezoelectric sensor. The overall findings can be concluded that energy harvesting can be generate to power small devices and it is also can help to sustain finite energy sources and therefore increasing the lifetime of non-renewable energy and thus reducing the bad effect towards the environment.

PA-09: Real and Reactive Power Loss Allocation in Deregulated Transmission Network Using Superposition Method
Student: FATIN NAJWA BINTI MAHMUD, Supervisor: Dr Saifulnizam bin Abd. Khalid

Restructured power system network provides a competitive platform for electricity market worldwide. Yet, several problems have arisen under the deregulated network which include transmission pricing, congestion management as well as transmission loss allocation. The allocation of transmission losses corresponding to each generator and load available in the system becomes the main focus of this project. The significance of this issue is that it can help the transmission grid operator to handle the transmission charges to the market participants based on the losses that they had contributed. Consequently, it becomes the decision-maker of the electricity-market participants for their financial commitments and profits. This project focuses on superposition theories to determine which generators as well as loads that contributes to each line losses that occur and how many contributions do they made. It involves tracing on both active and reactive power flow and losses from each generator and load through each transmission line. The method is divided into two parts; contribution of generators and loads respectively. Throughout this project, Matlab programming software is used to implement the steps taken in order to obtain the results. Tests are made on several number of systems; standard IEEE 5 bus, IEEE 14 bus, IEEE 30 bus as well as IEEE 62 bus. The results obtained from the superposition method are then compared with the results from load flow solution. The results from this project show that only slight difference is obtained from superposition method when compared with the load flow solution.

PA-10: Genetic Algortihm in Economic Dispatch by using MATLAB
Student: HADZRIN AQMAL BIN MOHD ZAKI, Supervisor: Prof Ir Dr Abdullah Asuhaimi bin Mohd Zin

In order to supply continuous electricity toward the consumers,there are several factors that need to be considered to avoid any dissatisfaction among the distributer company and consumer itself. In real system,the distance between the power plant and the load varies and this will lead to the varition of producing cost. In addition, the generation capacity is usually more than the load demand and sometime vice versa.Thus,economic dispatch is needed to reschedule back the operation of power distribution system in efficient way,reducing the production cost and to increase the reliability. This project is focusing on the comparison of the economic dispatch (ED) problems by using conventional method which is Lambda Iteration Method and the evolutionary program method which is Genetic Algorithm (GA).The result obtained will be analyzed by using a simulation called “MATLAB”.Secondly,this project also focuses on the development of Graphical User Interface (GUI) using a software called “GUIDE” by MATLAB. All the factors in the economic dispatch will be considered. The friendly user interface should help user to calculate the optimal economic dispatch without really much effort on hand calculation.

PA-11: Improvement on standalone photovoltaic
Student: KELVINDY JIVET, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Azhar bin Khairuddin

Standalone renewable solar system is important especially to those who live in rural area and could not get any grid connection from the utility to supply them electricity. This standalone renewable solar system could supply electricity for the rural people and enable them to do something at night since light is available and to some extent this system could help them in their work as a farmer in the future. The purpose of this project is to perform economic and technical analysis on the implementation of the standalone renewable solar system in rural area and to design the solar renewable system using simulation based on the actual loads or appliances use in rural area. Software tool HOMER is used to design and analyse the standalone solar renewable system. In this work, an alternative was made by using more cheaper solar renewable system will be run using the HOMER software based on the actual loads or appliances at the rural area. The energy storage for this study only uses battery and the effect of sunlight irradiation variation is considered in this project. The payback period of the system will also be determined in the analysis. Furthermore, the actual loads or appliances were used as the input for the simulation. The project also looks into the expansion of the solar renewable system after 10 years of the first installation of the system. In this expansion simulation, most people in rural area will be assumed to have all the basic appliances in their house. The results obtained show that the system was economically cheap and quite the same in technical aspect.

PA-12: Energy Meter Monitoring
Student: MOHAMAD SOLEHAN BIN MOHD SHUKUR JARAD, Supervisor: Prof Ir Dr Abdullah Asuhaimi bin Mohd Zin

Electrical energy is one of the energy sources commonly use to turn on the electric appliance such as lamp, fan, TV, aircond, etc. This is because the use of the electricity has become necessity for the people in their daily life. In Malaysia, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is one of the companies that generate electrical energy and the electricity produced will be distributed to the users and will charge according to energy usage. Nowadays, the consumer only knows about their rate of the energy usage and payment charged when TNB person come to check the meter once in a month. This will cause the consumer not aware with their energy usage and need paying high rates because of the high energy consumption. The energy meter that have been providing for each consumer cannot help the user to know their energy usage because not know the right method to take reading and calculation. The aim of this study is to make the consumer can find out the latest usage of energy consumption. Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) modem used for communication between the energy meter and their telephone mobile. Current sensor (CT) is used to identify the current usage and will send data to the microcontroller. The CT has been placed on the power distribution board (DB). Arduino is one of the microcontrollers which is used to make the calculation and give signal to GSM for sending the energy consumption data after receiving requests from consumer.

PA-13: Performance of Rainwater Harvesting System With Boost Converter
Student: MOHAMMAD AMALUDDIN BIN MANSOR, Supervisor: Dr Norzanah Binti Rosmin

The demand of energy is keep rising due to rapidly rising in technological and social growth development in most of the country in the world including Malaysia. There are many potential renewable energies that can be utilized and being used to accommodate a burden of usable energy that keep hike day by day such as wind, hydro, biomass and solar energy. Malaysia is a country that has high number of rainfall per year. Hence, Malaysia has a potential to apply rainwater harvesting (RWH) system, which is able to generate some small electrical power, presumably around 5W - 6W. Therefore, this study is conducted to increase the output voltage of an existing system of RWH system that has been designed and constructed in a laboratory at FKE, UTM. The developed system produced the voltage output of around 5 V. In this work, study is focused to increase such output voltage to a higher level; that appropriate to be used to light up 5 W to 12 W bulb (by lighting up four 3W LED). Hence, a boost power converter that appropriate with the existing system has been designed. In this work, the proposed boost power converter has been tested to the installed RWH system. Different LCD connections have been tested to the tank’s water volume of 60 L at 1-meter-high (from the bottom of the tank and the motor). In conclusion, from the experimental study, it has been found that the proposed method able to increased the low-voltage level to a relevant voltage level. Hence, the 5 W to12 W light bulb can be lighted up.

PA-14: Voltage Compensation Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)
Student: MOHAMMAD FAHMI BIN SH OMAR, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Hafiz bin Habibuddin

Power quality is one of the major concerns and emerging issue in the present era, with increasing quantities of sensitive electronic appliance and non-linear load being added to electrical system. The various power quality disturbances are voltage sag, voltage swell, interruption and harmonic distortion. Normally, power quality disturbances happens when lightning, starting or stop heavy load, fault occur, and transformer energizing. To solve that power quality problem, there are various power devices are used. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a custom power device used for the compensation of voltage sag and swell. By using DVR, our objective to compensate voltage sags and voltage swells can be accomplished. DVR is effective and efficient power electronic device. Besides that, DVR is small in size, low cost and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. The DVR consist of Voltage Source Restore (VSC), Injected Transformer, Passive Filter, and DC Energy Storage. This paper present modeling and simulation of a DVR using MATLAB.

PA-15: Voltage and Temperature Monitoring of SLA battery used in UPS system
Student: MOHAMMAD SYAFIQ BIN SAHARUDIN, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Azhar bin Khairuddin

Monitoring the Direct Current (DC) backup supply in Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system is crucial to prevent abrupt failure to the system and to ensure the expensive protection equipment in the power substation is sufficiently supported. This project develops a system that can monitor the float voltage and ambient temperature of Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) battery used as auxiliary device in UPS system. The main contribution of this work is a development of monitoring system for the performance of the SLA battery by using a web server. The system can indicate the health of the battery by indicating minimum float voltage and maximum temperature measured with reference to the standard and manual of the battery. This is achieved by connecting the related circuit and sensor to a programmed Arduino microcontroller which is attached to a Wi-Fi Shield for data transmission to the server. To validate the accuracy and performance of the proposed model, the simulation through a MATLAB Simulink is done and compared to the actual measurement. It is expected that the performance of the simulation data and the real circuit to be consistent with minimum deviation due to few assumptions for the simulation results. The float voltage and ambient temperature monitoring is important to maximum the life of the battery.

PA-16: Auto Street Light With Detecting Vehicle
Student: MOHAMMED ALIF SHAZMIN BIN SHOHAIMI, Supervisor: Dr Rasyidah bte Mohamad Idris

Street light is a raised source of light to illuminate on the edge of a road or walkway. In early era it was introduced, street light purpose was to illuminate the road user. A huge amount of electrical power of many countries including Malaysia was consumed for lighting the street. However, at some area there are low rate specific for the vehicle to pass and sometimes there is no car at the area at all. Auto Street Light with Detecting Vehicle is one of technologies system that can use by government for safety on the road user and low electrical power usage. This system that has been develops to improve the street light system in Malaysia. This system actually was developing to save the electrical power usage by the street light. As we all know, that street light system commonly use in Malaysia is it will be turn on from dusk (7 p.m) until dawn (7a.m). By developing this system, the street light will not turn on when dusk but it will turn on when there is movement at a certain distance. This system was created specifically for village area or highway where there is not much vehicle on the road. Efficiency of auto street light system has been study in this project and the prototype for this project has been developed. The focus for this project is to minimize the usage of electrical power for street lighting.

PA-17: Pipe Leakage Indicator Using Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
Student: MOHD ARIF BIN ABD HAMID, Supervisor: Alias bin Mohd. Yusof (Dr Saifulnizam Abd Khalid)

Water is one of the main factors that will affect our life style. In this era, not having a proper water management will be a wasted in term of money and environment. Mostly, water is lost due to leakage in different components of the networks that include transmission, distribution, and connection of pipes, joints, valves, and storage tanks. This project proposes a device that can detect pipe leakage in the domestic and housing area. It uses the flow meter that is installed after the flow meter of the house. It also incorporates the use of Arduino microcontroller and GSM module. The Arduino microcontroller was programmed using Arduino software to transmit signal to GSM module. Analysis of the system shows that the device is reliable in detecting water leakage and sending an alert signal to the user. The sensor of the device have flow rate range from 1L/H to 30L/H and operating temperature from -25 to +80℃ .which is sensitive with the movement of water and the sensitivity of the sensor were not affected with the surrounding temperature respectively. The modeling of this project required developing of software and hardware that can detect the leakage of water in the house efficiently.

PA-18: Evaluation Of Fault Parameters in Distribution System
Student: MOHD DANISH IKRAM BIN MOHD RODI, Supervisor: Dr Mohamed Abd. El-Monein Shaaban (Dr Dalila Mat Said)

Electric utilities often face the problem of finding the exact location of a failure in a distribution system. These failures have caused a lot of inconvenience to people. The utility must quickly find and isolate the fault to restore electric service. Therefore, an accurate fault evaluation technique has been studied to detect and locate the fault as accurate as possible in the system so that it can help decrease time repair significantly. In order to achieve the objectives, the project focuses on evaluating a fault location by using a DIgSILENT Powerfactory software. The IEEE 13 bus system which represents the distribution network have been developed using this software. Therefore, the fault criteria can be simulated and analyzed. A single line to ground fault will be specifically focused on this project.The fault then created at any line in the system to study its effect to the system. The obtained result in this software will show the located faults accurately and with its analysis calculation. The single phase to ground fault will show that the current magnitude is higher than prefault current while the fault voltage magnitude is less than the prefault voltage.

PA-19: Study on harmonic mitigation by using passive filter
Student: MUHAMAD AKMAL BIN AHMAD, Supervisor: Faridah binti Husin

The electricity consumption in this modern era is very important and become a necessity for our daily life. Todays, power system quality plays a big role to ensure the continuity of many electrical and electronic equipment or device. Harmonic distortion is one of the quality issues that occur in today power system that must be taken care seriously. Harmonic distortion will be classified as pollution if the existence harmonic current exceed the limit of Standard IEEE 519-1992. Harmonic problem will affect both power supply providers as well as customer. The purpose of this project is to study the harmonic mitigation for a simple system by installing passive filter using MATLAB SIMULINK software. The analysis in terms of total harmonic distortion for current and voltage of the system is based on the simulation that conducted to the system with and without filter installation. The findings concluded that that the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is reduced when suitable filter is installed in the circuit.

PA-20: Impact of Power Quality In a Distribution Transformer
Student: MUHAMAD KHAIRUNNAS BIN AZMI, Supervisor: Dr Dalila binti Mat Said

Distribution Transformer is an equipment of electrical system that has been designed for utilizing at the fundamental frequency and linear load. An operation with the existence of nonlinear loads cause slightly different to it performance and introduce harmonics to the electrical supply. Power loss due to harmonics causes additional heating in power system components, which leads to the increase in operational costs. This is particularly critical for the distribution transformer where the increased loss due to the presence of harmonic will cause excessive winding loss and abnormal temperature rise. This shortens the life span of the transformer. Therefore, it seems necessary to know the harmonic data and transformer temperature, which can be help to predict the remaining transformer life expectancy. This research will analyze the increase of transformer losses due to harmonic in the system. A model of the transformer will be developed and analyze using MATLAB/SIMULINK software under three different condition, no load, with linear load only and with nonlinear load condition. The analysis of the transformer losses and its temperature will be use to estimate the transformer life expectancy. The increase of the transformer losses due to different harmonic level, its efficiency and lifetime will be presented in this thesis.

PA-21: Analysis of battery integration as energy storage system in power supply
Student: MUHAMAD SALLEH BIN SHAFIEE, Supervisor: Dr Jasrul Jamani Jamian

This paper proposes an improved modeling approach for the battery integration as energy storage system in power supply. The main contribution of this work is the controlling the integrating scheme in terms of its power delivery, current behavior and state-of-charge (SOC) were carried out via simulation using MATLAB software through Simulink program. This is achieved by connecting the switching breaker between the load and the power supply that control the switching to connect and disconnect the battery with the load and the power supply. To validate the accuracy of the proposed model, the battery was integrated in parallel connection with breaker for the load and the breaker for the power supply. It also connected parallel with the DC-DC boost converter before connected with the load. The performances of the model are evaluated against with the controller and without the controller for charging and discharging models. It is found that the proposed model is capable in providing the power every time for the load. In contrast, the battery was capable of complementarily supplying stable power for the load. Although this scheme requires more power electronic component, it gives better performances in making the battery to last longer. The modeling method is useful for the battery performances and circuit controlling developers who requires quit simple and the state of charge easier to controller to avoid battery damages.

PA-22: Energy Efficiency Strategies In Domestic Area (House) Using Load Pattern Approach
Student: MUHAMAD SYAFIQ BIN CHE JOHARI, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohammad Yusri bin Hassan

Electrical energy is important in our daily lives. Electrical energy is used to operate the electrical appliances around us. There are efficient and inefficient electrical appliances. The usage of electricity has increased drastically due to inefficient electrical appliances that had been used at the residential area. There are plenty of appliances which provide the same function but consume much less electrical energy that available in the markets. In this thesis, the main objective is to propose a strategic planning to the residential house in planning their electrical power consumption so that they can reduce their electrical consumption. The electrical equipment from this house will be audited. Several houses will be installed with a energy meter to record the usage of electricity. After the data is obtained an analysis conducted to determine the highest electrical equipment that consumes most power. By using Visual Studio 2015, software is being developed to display the reduction in energy consumption and electricity bills. A few strategically method will be suggested from the analysis on the existing systems. The financial costs are also estimated, and the payback period is calculated. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed using Visual Studio 2015 to ease the calculation of energy-related parameters. As a result there will be 70% of reduction in electrical power if replacing the existing lighting system to energy efficient lighting system. Further appliance can be replace in reducing electrical power. Overall this project would help resident area to planning on reducing their electrical consumption.

PA-23: Load Monitoring And Control By Using ZigBee Wireless Network
Student: MUHAMMAD AMIN BIN KAMAL, Supervisor: Dr Mohamed Abd. El-Monein Shaaban (Faridah binti Husin)

Currently, world is facing a massive problem of power. This major problem exists because of rocketing in power demand on the consumer side rather than the power production itself. The rising in energy consumption with the extend growth and development of modern system and lifestyle had create a big concern in most countries. The purpose of this project is to develop a device and system that can monitor and control real time load consumption. The device includes sensor, base station and energy managing aspects. The device is able to observe a real time energy consumption which is transferred wirelessly by using ZigBee communication system. Basically the monitoring and controlling of load consumption are accomplished by simple switching (on and off) using Zig Bee communication system technology. The both aspects of load monitoring and load controlling are done by the Arduino as the microcontroller. The energy used by the load is monitored by using microcontroller that connected to the control system. The control system will be in the position ‘on’ if the load is allowed to consume energy and otherwise it will be at ‘off position. The data collected by the microcontroller then will either send to the server and simultaneously any information from server will be received by the microcontroller using the ZigBee communication network. The findings concluded that load monitoring in real time manage to control the usage of load consumption and thus reduce the energy consumption in an effective way.

PA-24: Mitigation of Harmonic Resonance Using Active Filter
Student: MUHAMMAD ASYRAF BIN AIZUDDIN, Supervisor: Dr Ahmad Safawi bin Mokhtar

The issue of power quality in the power utility system has gradually becomes a major concerned for end users and electric utilities. It is an umbrella concept for a multitude of individual types of power system disturbances. In the 1970s, this is when the power electronic converters at first to be introduced to power utility systems and lot of utility engineers come to be rather concerned on the capability of the power system to put up to the harmonic distortion. In the power utility system, harmonic resonance can occur when natural frequency in the power system corresponds to the frequency of a source of harmonic current, due to increasing implementation of power electronics that produce harmonic current in the power system. This project presents a power system simulation of a harmonic resonance phenomenon. By using MATLAB Simulink software as the simulation platform, an active power filter is proposed to mitigate the distortion level that produced during the harmonic resonance. The conventional filtering method using passive power filter is also presented to observe the harmonic resonance effect in an industrial power system. This project also utilized the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for spectral analysis in order to observe the effect of active power filter and the percentage of total harmonic distortion (THD) to the power system.  

PA-25: Fault Warning Detection System
Student: MUHAMMAD FAUZI BIN ABDUL LATIFF, Supervisor: Dr Rasyidah bte Mohamad Idris

Fault Warning Detection System is a development system for protection of motor in industry. The purpose in designing this project is to prevent the motor from damage because of over current. The objectives of this project are to develop fault detection system in a motor considering over current and to develop fault reporting system using Short Message Services (SMS). Fault Warning Detection System has three important parts which is Arduino Controller, Arduino Motor Driver and GSM. This project includes the protection system that will protect the equipment from damages and the GSM as a communication system to reduce the delay time of the breakdown. As a result, it will prevent from the monetary loss and therefore it will not affect the production of the company. Actually this design and development system is giving no risk to customer, save time, energy and easy to use.

PA-26: Analysis of Harmonic Using Different Mitigation Technique
Student: MUHAMMAD HAZEEM BIN AB JALIL, Supervisor: Dr Dalila binti Mat Said

Power system harmonics cause many problems like equipment failures and malfunction of equipment. Today, various techniques to mitigate the harmonic problems are available. But, not all techniques are superior to solve the problems. The objective of this research is to reduce harmonic distortion in power system network using different mitigation technique. The harmonic analysis focused on this study is at networks that consist of non-linear load as the main contribution to the harmonic problems. Three harmonic mitigation techniques are proposed to solve the problems, single tuned filter, C-type filter and phase shift transformer. The proposed method will be tested on IEEE-15 bus test system using MATLAB software. The results obtained shows that, all mitigation techniques are able to suppress the THDI below the limits but at some individual harmonic number and power factor resultant, not satisfied the limits. In term of electrical and cost benefits, the 5th and 7th order tuned filter is chosen as a best technique to mitigate harmonic problems in this study.

PA-27: Harmonic Meter
Student: MUHAMMAD MUADZ BIN ADZLIM, Supervisor: Dr Dalila binti Mat Said

Nowadays, the most common sources of harmonics are power electronic loads such as the adjustable speed drives (ASDs) and switching power supplies. The contributions of harmonic level from different types of electronic load are unknown until the measurement has been performed. Therefore, it’s essential to have a suitable measurement meter or harmonic analyzer. The device to detect and analyze the harmonics in the circuits on the market today, are too costly. Moreover, the designs for the harmonic analyzers in the market are different for each of the brands. Not to mention, their software used are different too, and because of those software, the price increased tremendously. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop and design the low cost smart meter to detect the harmonic from single phase load. The harmonic meter will develop by using Arduino, as the software the simulation to identify the harmonics contents of the single phase non-linear load using the Fast Fourier Transform method will be used. The meter will detect the frequency of the harmonics from the fundamental frequencies up to the 25th harmonic order with the help of suitable circuits and equipment such as resistors, capacitors and an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). Therefore, from the designed meter using a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), the results will display the harmonic data.

PA-28: Pole Placement Method In Power System Stabilizer To Improve Dynamic Stability
Student: MUHAMMAD NIDZAM SYAHMI BIN BAHARUN, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Fadli bin Rahmat

The definition of power system stability is the ability of an electric power system to regain its state of operating equilibrium from a given initial operating condition after being subjected to a physical disturbance. When the system experience interruption, the electrical variables like rotor angle, rotor speed and electrical power terminal voltage will be losing its synchronism and could interrupt the entire power system. The synchronous stability of a power system can be classified based on the nature of disturbance and for the purpose of succeed analysis. It can be categorized into three types, which is steady state stability, transient stability and dynamic stability. The third type of stability, which is dynamic stability, is the focused in this project. Dynamic stability also known as small-signal stability can be modelled by using state variable equation and observed for small signal disturbance. These small disturbances occur due to random fluctuations in loads and generation levels that can lead to catastrophic failure as this may force the rotor angle to increase steadily. In this study, to increase the power system stability, a power system stabilizer should be used as an electrical controller. Therefore, pole placement method has been used to design the power system stabilizer, which can be practically implemented and improve the power system dynamic stability. It is shown that sizable improvement in system damping can be obtained over the uncompensated system.

PA-29: Energy Cost Reduction In Commercial Building Using Power Factor Management Approach
Student: MUHAMMAD SYAHMEER BIN JAMAL NASIR, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohammad Yusri bin Hassan

The overall electrical system is in good condition when the power factor is in optimum or close-to-unity value. Although the capacitor bank had been installed at the main incoming power 132kV substation of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), there are substations where the power factor still below 90 percent. The power factor still low due to high power losses of underground cable between the substations, thus capacitor bank installation is one of the ways to improve the power factor. The main goal of this project is to determine the strategic point for the capacitor bank installation using Power World Simulator software. There are a total of 60 substations in UTM, but the scope of this project is substations with high inductive loads such as laboratory room, Institut Voltan & Arus Tinggi (IVAT) and the air-conditioner lecture room are involved only. The strategic point could be obtained by using Power World Simulator software based on the data of real power, reactive power, voltage, current, and power factor those were taken at the substations with assistance of chargeman. The size of the capacitor bank that should be parallel with load had been calculated using formula and tested in the simulation. The cost and the power loss reduction in the distribution system will be analyzed. It is shown that 16kW of power loss reduces when capacitor bank is installed at the strategic point. The capacitor bank installation method is useful to UTM as it is the cheapest and easiest way to improve power factor.

PA-30: Enhancing Photovoltaic Efficiency Via Cooling-Light Reflection Method
Student: MUHAMMAD ZHARIF BIN ZULKEFLI, Supervisor: Dr Jasrul Jamani Jamian

The main objective of this project is to show the potential use of a solar panel using multiple fixed directed mirrors as a reflector and water as a cooling agent to lower the temperature of the panel surface. The main contribution of this work is by increasing the irradiance or the solar energy absorb by the photovoltaic (PV) cell. There are three mirrors being placed around the solar panel with specific angle and a water pipe at the top-end of the panel to allow water running on the surface of the solar panel controlled by Arduino program. In the simulation using MATLAB, it is clearly that the presence of additional irradiance or sunlight will increase the output power, voltage and current. Besides, when the temperature of solar cell is increased, the output energy become slightly decrease. With the help of Data Acquisition Interface LVDAC, the data of conventional solar panel and solar panel with reflector-cooling method were recorded and compared their performance respectively. Experimental shows that if the presence of reflector (mirrors) to concentrate sunlight onto PV panel, the panel receives an additional output power. Moreover, the output power also increase when the water flow on the surface of solar panel. As a result, it can save cost because less number of solar panels are needed to produce a certain amount of power.

PA-31: Charge Pump circuits for Low Voltage Application
Student: NIK ILYANI BINTI NIK ASRI, Supervisor: Alias bin Mohd. Yusof (Dr Mohd Fadhli Rahmat)

A charge pump is one of the converters that can boost low voltage input to higher output DC voltage. Most of the converters are using capacitor as energy storage with semiconductor as switch with few stages. The objective of this project is to investigate the performances of Dickson and Cockroft-Walton converters in term of voltage regulation and efficiency. The analysis of each circuit can also be obtained by using the different values of capacitor. These two types of charge pump circuits are simulated using Pspice ORCAD software in order to determine the characteristics of each type. The number of stages is fixed to four and low input voltage for both type of converters. The Cockroft-Walton managed to boost output voltage up to 22V from 3Vac input. For Dickson type, the output produced only 7V with 3Vdc input. The Cockroft-Walton Charge Pump produced three times higher of output voltage than Dickson Charge Pump. It also showed that Dickson converter having higher efficiency compared to Cockroft-Walton from simulation study. It made the Cockroft-Walton did not compatible enough to be applied for low voltage application as the output voltage produced might be in a very high value. Hence, the comparison study has been made between simulation works of Dickson converter with hardware type. Lastly, the detailed results and problems of each type of circuits will be discussed separately.

PA-32: Internal Model Control (IMC) Design for a Stall-Regulated Variable-Speed Wind Turbine System
Student: NOOR HAFIZAH BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN, Supervisor: Dr Norzanah Binti Rosmin

The internal model control (IMC) structure offers more benefits than the classical design in terms of the controller design procedure, in which the IMC is more direct and natural than the classical control. The main purpose of this study is to develop an internal model control (IMC) design for a squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG), coupled with a full-rated power converter of a small (25 kW), stall-regulated, variable-speed wind-turbine (SRVSWT) system. In this study, research has been focused on the power regulation of such SRVSWT system using IMC design but still using proportional-integral (PI) tuning rule. This study only performed using simulation work only. During the controller design, the effect of low and higher order filter for the PI-IMC design has been considered. From the simulation study, it has been observed that lower order filter could provide easier, faster and smoother power regulation

PA-33: Optimal Location of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) in Mitigating Voltage Sag
Student: NOR AMANI FARHANAH BINTI MOHD KAMIL, Supervisor: Dr Ahmad Safawi bin Mokhtar

The demand for electrical energy by power system has increase gradually causing the need to maintain reliable and good power quality has become vital. Therefore, it is priority to maintain the system from power quality disturbance. Among all the power quality disturbances, voltage sag is the most frequently and severe disturbance that occur in the system. Voltage sag is a short duration of reduction in rms voltage. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device is a custom power electronic device and it is recognized to the best method to mitigate voltage sag. This project will only focus on the FACTS device of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). DVR is connected in series and it will inject the appropriate voltage through injection transformer to the system to mitigate voltage sag. The purpose of this project is to implement the uses of DVR to mitigate voltage sag on the IEEE 14 bus distribution system. However, the major drawback of DVR is the installation of the system is very expensive. Therefore, it is important to know the optimal location to place the DVR to the system. Simulation was carried out by using MATLAB Simulink software. Two type of faults which are three phase fault and single line to ground fault were implement to the system to simulate voltage sag and the data for percentage of sag obtained from simulation were used to analyze and determine the sensitive load. DVR is placed at the most sensitive load.

PA-34: Voltage Sag Source Location using Artificial Neural Network
Student: NOR AZLIANA BINTI ABDULLAH, Supervisor: Dr Saifulnizam bin Abd. Khalid

Voltage sag is the power quality problem that must be prevented as it causes the power disruption to the industry. Therefore, it is essential to prevent this power disruption from affecting the whole power system. Before any mitigation steps are implemented, the location of voltage sag in the power system must be identified. There are a lot of methods used to identify the location of voltage sag. By using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), voltage sag can be identified with greater accuracy and it offers less computational time. The aim of this project is to identify the causes and impacts of voltage sag in the transmission system. To evaluate the voltage sag source location by using the voltage deviation index and to simulate the voltage at the unmonitored bus using the ANN in Mat Lab. To investigate the performance of ANN, two test systems have been built on the 138 kV transmission systems. Balanced and unbalanced faults have been imposed on the power system and the voltage deviation is calculated. ANN is then used to identify the location of the voltage sag in the power system. After implementation of the ANN, the location of the voltage sag can be identified quickly with the accuracy of 0.01%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ANN is the best method of finding the location of voltage sag.

PA-35: Improve Power Quality by using Unified Power Quality Conditioner
Student: NUR AFIQAH BINTI JAMIL, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Hafiz bin Habibuddin

Issues on the power quality such as voltage sags and harmonics lead to the negative impact on the distribution system. These issues are contributed by the increasing use of sensitive electronic equipment and non-linear load in the electrical system. As the end user expect high quality power supply continuously, it is necessary to protect the system from any disturbance so that the quality and reliability of the power system can be maintained. One device that can offer the system to retain its power quality is Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC). UPQC has the ability to mitigate most of the issues on the power system immediately. The purpose of this report is to implement the UPQC device with a proper controller to mitigate voltage sags and harmonics. Simulations done in Matlab shows that UPQC device has the potential to deal mutually with both supply voltage and load current imperfection.

PA-36: Electrical Energy Management Of A Commercial Building With Photovoltaic Energy Sources
Student: NUR AFIQAH DAYINI BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN, Supervisor: Dr Md. Pauzi bin Abdullah

In most countries, commercial sector electricity customers have to pay two types of bill which are electricity consumption (in kWh) and maximum demand (in kW). For electricity consumption charge it depends on the amount of electricity consumed in a particular month, whereas maximum demand charge depends on the highest recorded kW reading of the particular month. Therefore, by controlling the maximum demand, electricity bill can be reduced. The main objective of this project is to minimize the maximum demand charges by developing an electrical energy management strategy for a commercial building by using photovoltaic sources. Load shifting is the most helpful method as by shifting the load to another period of time would be able to decrease building’s maximum demand. However, majority of the loads are difficult to shift as the use of the building is uncertain. By using photovoltaic energy sources to supply electricity is proposed in this project to reduce maximum demand. Thus, it requires a systematic energy management strategy since the output from photovoltaic sources is unpredictable. This project is carried out by using the actual electricity consumption data of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Block P19a). The result shows that with the use of photovoltaic sources together with a proper energy management, a building’s maximum demand charges can be reduced significantly.

PA-37: A Study On Energy Efficient Of Lighting Appliance With Photocell Device At Residential Area
Student: NUR ATIQAH BINTI MUSTAPA, Supervisor: Faridah binti Husin

Energy consumption increasing rapidly all over the world as well as in Malaysia. The Malaysian power generation sector is mainly depends on the fossil fuel that produces a huge amount of emissions and changes the climate. Furthermore, the fossil fuel is non-renewable and it will eventually run out. In Malaysia, although energy use of the residential sector accounts about 15% compared to the other sectors, the energy consumption in the household sector becomes important as the energy demand in household keeps increasing. This phenomena will be a major threat to the sustainability where it will increase the carbon dioxide and causes a big impact on the environment. The purpose of this research is to study the effectiveness of installing photocell device in household in terms of reduction in energy consumption, carbon dioxide and electricity bills. The photocell device has been placed in the chosen house of residential area and data on energy consumption of the house has been recorded for 30 days. Apart from this, the questionnaire was distributed to collect the information regarding the average of electricity bills and the usage of the outdoor lighting among residents. The overall findings indicate that the controlling outdoor lighting with the photocell device showed a better performance in terms of energy saving, electricity bill reduction and carbon dioxide emission. The findings concluded that by installing the photocell device in the household, it is able to reduce the energy consumption, save money and contribute to a positive impact on the global environment.

PA-38: Conventional and Modified Savonius Wind Turbine Performance on concentrator for P19a building
Student: NUR AZALIA BINTI AZRIN, Supervisor: Dr Norzanah Binti Rosmin

P19a building is a strategic place and possibly could be benefitted to install a micro-sized Vertical-Axis Wind-Turbine (VAWT). P19a building is located opposite to the field that are less air turbulences. The wind speed at level 5 of P19a can reach up to 6.0 m/s. In this study, a conventional Savonius and modified Savonius VAWT blade rotors have been designed and have been constructed to be tested at level 5 of P19a building. Two types of blade arc angles have been considered in the design; 180 ° and 195° for both blade rotors. Also, in this study, an Omni Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) has been designed and constructed to increase the wind flow that hitting the blade rotors. The dimensions of Savonius blade rotors and the ODGV were designed based on the suitable size for building purposes. The generated output then has been stored in a battery bank for back up purpose. Based on the findings, it has been observed that both blades produce best performance when tested using ODGV. However, modified Savonius VAWT presents better performance compared to the conventional Savonius in terms of angular speed (ω), tip speed ratio (TSR), power coefficient (CP) and torque coefficient (CT). In conclusion, the presence of ODGV increases the airflow to provide better performance on blades.

PA-39: A Micro Hydro System for Rural Area Electrification at Rumah Japar Sarikei Sarawak
Student: NUR AZRIEHAFIZ BIN MOHD ISMAIL, Supervisor: Dr Mohamed Abd. El-Monein Shaaban (Dr Jasrul Jamani Jamian)

This project proposes a hybrid system between a generator, photovoltaic (PV) and micro hydro using HOMER software. The main contribution of this project is to determine the life-cycle cost of hybrid micro power system based on physical behavior at Rumah Japar Sarikei Sarawak. This is achieved by using the HOMER software which allows to compare many different design options based on their technical and economic merits. The modelling and simulation is begin with only diesel generator set connected to the distribution network. Next, the performance of hybrid micro power consisting of diesel generator set with micro hydro is evaluated. Lastly hybrid micro power consisting all of the components, diesel generator set, micro hydro and photovoltaic (PV) is analyzed. The modelling and simulation is useful for designers in designing a hybrid micro power consisting of diesel generator set with micro hydro in the future.

PA-40: Available Transfer Capability (ATC) Improvement Using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
Student: NUR FAIZA BINTI MOHD TARJUDDIN, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Hafiz bin Habibuddin

The purpose of this project is to improve the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device. A type of FACTS device, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) which is used to control and regulates bus voltage, line active and reactive power simultaneously or any combination of them. Newton Raphson power analysis was used to evaluate the load flow analysis while Repetitive Power Flow (RPF) method was used to measure the feasible ATC value within voltage limit. UPFC was placed on the transmission line and from the result, it was observed that ATC can be improved.

PA-41: Feasibility of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Fuel Cell Hybrid Energy System
Student: NUR IWANI BINTI IBRAHIM, Supervisor: Zaniah binti Muda

Renewable energy system such as photovoltaic and fuel cell system has become a trendy installation by consumer and industry today. Increasing usage of electricity due to the rise of population growth rate and high of technological application makes renewable energy sources as a backup power generation to supply electricity. This project focuses on the feasibility of renewable energy (RE) resources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) connected with the conventional grid system operates in the Zarith Sofea Library building. In this project, Hybrid Optimization Model Electric Renewable (HOMER) software has been used to analyze the performance and the financial in terms of primary energy used, cost of energy (COE), payback period and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. The HOMER software will identify the best option of RE grid connected system at Zarith Sofea Library building with different sizes of photovoltaic (PV) panel, fuel cell (FC) generator and converter. The result shows that the PV Grid Connected system has the minimum net present cost (NPC) and COE for 25 years which is RM116,467 and RM0.316/kWh respectively. The return on investment (ROI) and payback period (PP) of the best option system in HOMER is 236.065% and 8.78 years respectively. Plus, the carbon dioxide, CO2 emission savings percentage after applying renewable energy source is 51.74%.

Student: NUR SYAZWANI BINTI MOHAMMAD SEH, Supervisor: Dr Md. Pauzi bin Abdullah

The increasing number of nonlinear loads primarily in commercial buildings and industries increases the power harmonic distortion level. This is because nonlinear loads supplies draw current in high amplitudes and short pulses, which unfortunately create distortion in electrical current and voltage. Therefore, the distortion travels back into the power sources affects other`s equipment those connect with the same source. Although these nonlinear loads have better energy efficiency, they also inflict damage to the power system in term of harmonic distortion. Thus, this project studied the harmonic distortion and their effect on the equipment`s performance. Plus, this project was tested on practical data at a commercial building which consists of nonlinear loads such as computers, printers, laptops and fluorescent lamps. The data are logged for one week with one-minute time interval using power analyzer Fluke 435 device. This project also focuses on harmonic data collections which were retrieved at three different times which are at 8.30am, 11.30am, and 3.30am. The circuit is modelled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK R2013a. Next, based on the harmonic measurement data collected from the building, the standard passive harmonic filter is designed to reduce the harmonic distortion of the building. The limit of the percentage of reducing the total harmonic current distortion is within the IEEE 519-1993 standard. From the analysis done, the result shows that the harmonic distortion is reduced after the passive harmonic filter was installed.

Student: NURATIQA BINTI KAMARUDIN, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Fadli bin Rahmat

Nowadays, the traffic congestion is increase follows by the increment of the registered vehicles in Malaysia. It became a serious issue when the vehicles travel with slower speed, longer trip times and increased vehicular queuing especially at traffic light. Thus, the purpose of this research is to study on the solution of traffic light system based on Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS). This project focuses on Jalan Kempas Lama, Johor Bahru that near to PLUS interchange which has three linked traffic light system. It was reported that most of vehicles taking more travelling and queuing time during peak hours. The implementation of SCATS to the suggested area successfully reduces the traffic congestion to more than half of current travelling and queuing time periods. The improvement was achieved by using the concept of automatic green timer calculation compared to manual plan system. Therefore, this project will provide a conceptual framework from SCATS for Malaysia traffic light system.

PA-44: Implementation of Boost Converter to the Existing Micro-Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)
Student: NURSYUKRIAH BINTI IDRIS, Supervisor: Dr Norzanah Binti Rosmin

DC-DC converters are the most central parts of an electronic device that can change DC electrical power efficiently from one voltage level to another level. However, to change the voltage level from an ultra-low input voltage is not available at this moment in the market. This project presents a design, simulation and analysis of an ideal and non-ideal converter using the method of an open loop boost converter. The boost converter is designed to convert 0.15 V to 1.5 V, as required by a miniature 0.45 W light bulb. This 0.15 V is actually came from the output generated from the existing system of a micro-sized Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) that had been developed in a laboratory at FKE, UTM. In this study, research has been focused on how to rectify the ultra-low input voltage (0.15 V) into low input voltage level (1.5 V) by varying the PWM duty cycle and its switching frequency. The simulation work has been designed and developed using MATLAB/Simulink software. From the study, it has been found out that the proposed boost converter design is able to reach the expected DC voltage with small error.

PA-45: Photovoltaic Cleaning System Using Simple Robotic Approach for Malaysia Climate
Student: NURUDDIN BIN RUSLI, Supervisor: Dr Jasrul Jamani Jamian

This project propose an improvement of the cleaning system for the photovoltaic (PV) module using a simple robot. The main contribution of this work is in the construction of the simple robot whereby including the hardware and software development .From the observation, the performance of the photovoltaic module is decreasing due to the deposition of the impurities on the photovoltaic surface. Therefore, this is solved by designing a robot before doing the attachment on the PV module, and subsequently creating the circuits to be programmed using an arduino simulation. To validate the working of the simple robot approach, two types of impurities (sand and expired bread) are tested by placing on the PV module surface. The robot is programmed with particular condition for the robot to work. The results of the experiment are recorded using the LVDAC software connected to the data acquisition system. It is found that the proposed idea can give the best result in term of photovoltaic cleaning system. In particular, the graphs results shows the improvement of the power output after the cleaning process. The PV module with the robot attachment method is useful for removing the deposition of any impurities photovoltaic surface. At last, the result will show the increment of the efficiency of the power input received by the photovoltaic (PV) module.

PA-46: Classification and Location of Faults in Transmission Line Via Wavelet Transform
Student: NURUL IDAYU BINTI YUSOFF, Supervisor: Dr Jasrul Jamani Jamian

This paper presents a technique used to classify and locate the different types of faults in two system models of transmission line – Single-Ended Series and Double-Ended Parallel Models. The main contribution of this study is its help improve the power quality of the transmission lines after fault occurred, with classifying and locating faults rapidly and precisely isolate the faulty section. This can be achieved by using wavelet transform approach in which four different types of fault have been classified and locate; Single Line to Ground Fault (SLGF), Double Line to Ground Fault (DLGF), Line to Line Fault (LLF) and 3-Phase Fault (3-PF) signals that obtained through simulation in the Simulink MATLAB. Daubechies 4 (Db4) and Haar mother wavelet been used in classification and location of faults respectively. Db4 is considered effective for fault classification such that the energy ratio on each phase of transmission line can indicate the fault types precisely in minimum of times. Haar is been used in locating faults for several distances and proved to be efficient mother wavelet when the error obtained from the calculated distance is less than 1%. The validation of this accurate result is done by comparing it with several other papers with the same analysis of faults in the transmission line. Wavelet Transform in classifying and locating the fault is useful for transmission line protection which required a simple, fast yet accurate method approach.

PA-47: Impact of Different Types of Distributed Generation on Voltage Sag
Student: OOI YEONG SHIN, Supervisor: Dr Ahmad Safawi bin Mokhtar

Voltage sag is one of most common issue faced by every electricity consumer. It is a temporary drop in voltage magnitude for a short duration which mainly caused by lightning. Thus, this research investigate how does the implementation of a distributed generation (DG) to a system can affect the voltage sag. An IEEE 14 bus system was chose as the distribution system and built using MATLAB Simulink. Three phase fault is introduced and simulation is run to get the voltage sag of distribution system without DG. The simulation is run again with the implementation of DG which are photovoltaic, fuel cell and wind turbine to get the effect on voltage sag of each of the DG. A few location was chose as the placement of DG to get the best result. From the result obtained, it can be concluded that DG does improve voltage sag problem. The improvement of voltage sag varies for each types of DG and the location of DG in the distribution system. A DG can be considered to bring a positive impact when there is an increase in percentage of magnitude of voltage sag and maintained the voltage approximately to the rated value.

PA-48: Fault Location Using Digital Relay Data
Student: RAHIMAH AMIRAH BINTI MOHAMAD, Supervisor: Prof Ir Dr Mohd Wazir bin Mustafa

A fault has higher chances to occur at transmission line due to its condition which is exposed to the environment. Due to the development, transmission line becomes more complex and this leads to difficulty to analyse and it is quite challenging to locate the fault. There are various methods to detect and locate fault location such as digital relay, travelling wave, base impedance technique, wavelet transform, fuzzy logic or artificial neural network. However, in this project data gained from digital relay is used to locate the fault location. Digital relay uses a microprocessor and microcontrollers to analyse power system voltages, currents or other process quantities in order to detect faults. The digital relay data is obtained from the distance relay recording device, provided by the Protection Department of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), Johor Bahru. The simple radial system has been designed using DigSILENT PowerFactory software to implement the performance of digital relay. In this project, asymmetrical fault is focused and simulated. Then, the system is tested on the data obtained from TNB. Finally at the end of the discussion, the performance of the digital relay can be perceived. By using a digital relay, there are plenteous superiority consist of increase accuracy, auxiliary functions, reduce maintenance activity, less space requirements and costs compared with using electromechanical relay. In conclusion, this method is very superior to detect the location of fault.

PA-49: Fault Location on Transmission Line using Travelling Wave Method
Student: SITI ASIAH AL SAADAH BINTI ABDUL AZIZ, Supervisor: Prof Ir Dr Mohd Wazir bin Mustafa

Power transmission system is most important in electrical power system as a function to transmit electric energy to the end users. A fault occurs in power system causes to over current, under voltage, unbalance of the phase and high voltage surges. This results in the disruption of the normal operation of a network, electrical fires, failure of equipment and others. Various methods have been used to locate the faults which are an impedance based method, travelling wave method, fuzzy logic and artificial neural network. In this project, the travelling wave method has been used to locate the fault occurs on power transmission system. This method is chosen because it able to locate the fault with high accuracy and also insensitive to power swings, fault resistance, source parameter and current transformer saturation. The simple circuit for radial transmission line has been designed by using MATLAB Simulink software and the analysis and data have been collected. The fault cause a high-frequency electromagnetic impulse called the travelling wave. Travelling wave method is used by estimating the location of fault based on measuring the difference time between reference peak and reflected peak of fault wave. Based on the result obtained, the shape of fault voltage and current are obeyed with the theoretical concept and make easier to calculate the distance of fault by using the formula in travelling wave theory.

PA-50: Mitigation of Voltage Sag using UPFC
Student: SITI HUSNA NADIAH BINTI NOOR AZMAN, Supervisor: Dr Saifulnizam bin Abd. Khalid

In most countries, there a lot of problems that occur involved power systems. Power problems can be divided in many parts of interruptions that include voltages, currents and frequency outside the nominal range. Voltage sags is one of the power systems problems and can cause the failure of a machine and it will affects electrical utilities and electrical users. Voltage sags is usually caused by the system faults, and often the results of switching on loads with heavy start up currents. This problem basically occurs on equipment in industrial sectors. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) is basically use power electronic components to increase in controllability and capability in the power systems. Thus, this project is applying one of the FACTS devices to improve the stability of the voltage and bring it back to its nominal range. There are lots of FACTS devices that can be used but the more interesting and has the potential that can be applied in voltage sags problem is Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The UPFC will be applied in a simple bus system that having faults and will be simulated using Simulink in MATLAB software to see the performance of it in order to stabilize the voltage. The simulations will give not only the voltage results but also the results of the impedance and the phase angle.

PA-51: Enhancement of ATC in transmission lines using FACTS device
Student: SYARINAH BINTI ZAKARIA, Supervisor: Dr Rasyidah bte Mohamad Idris

The purpose of this project is to improve the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) using Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) device due to some constraints in transmission lines. In this project, the type of FACTS device used are Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) which responsible to increase the power transfer capability in transmission systems and to control the power flow in order to enhance the ATC value of the system. However, installing FACTS devices are expensive, but the cost of installation can be reduced by determine the allocation of FACTS devices. Therefore, this project proposed a method using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to obtain the optimal placement of FACTS devices. The reference test systems which are IEEE 9 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system will be tested using MATLAB. From the study, it is observed that SVC is the best choice compared to TCSC for enhancement of ATC in transmission lines.

PA-52: Real-Time Monitoring of Water Leakage
Student: SYAZWANI BINTI MAWARDI, Supervisor: Alias bin Mohd. Yusof (Dr Mohd Hafiz Habibuddin)

Supply water pipe network is the most important guarantee of the industry production, commercial development and residential livings. However, due to some factors such as natural phenomenon, construction of the city and decaying of pipe insulation may cause supply pipes to burst or leak. Leaky pipelines could cause wastage of water, damage to the pipe network and foundations of roads and building and also in bigger cases may affect public health due to water contaminations. There many ways to detect a water leakage either software monitoring or hardware application. Most of the low-cost methods of detecting leakage are using hardware which people can buy of the market today. However, studies show that the most accurate methods of detecting leakage in pipelines are by monitoring the parameters of water in piping network. The aim of this study is to detect water leakage in house pipelines using real-time monitoring of water flow. To achieve the targeted aim, a model simulation of water-flow in pipelines was monitored at two (2) conditions, with leakage and without leakage. Arduino Uno programming was done in order to detect the water flow in the pipelines and a XQL database was done for real-time monitoring of water flow. The expected result of this study is to develop a prototype model that could detect leakage in water pipelines.

PA-53: Wireless Control Of Load Demand
Student: WAN IKMAL HAKIM BIN WAN SULAIMAN, Supervisor: Dr Mohamed Abd. El-Monein Shaaban (Dr Md. Pauzi Othman)

The commercial buildings in Malaysia are charged by two different types of charges; i) electricity consumption charge (kWh) ii) maximum demand charge (kW). The maximum demand charge is based on the maximum power consumption at any instant within a month disregarding the amount of electricity consumption. The maximum demand charge can be reduced by limiting the maximum electricity consumption at any time instant. It requires extensive monitoring of the instantaneous kW electricity consumption and sets of controlling action to avoid the consumption exceeds the defined limit. The objective of this project is to develop a simple device that enables the user to control their electrical energy consumption whether automatically or defined by user by using certain command. The device is developed by using the Arduino microcontroller and current transformer. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) modem is used to receive and transmitting the signal wirelessly. Whereas, a current transformer YHDC SCT013 is used to monitor second-by-second kW electricity consumption of a building, and is also used as the input to the microcontroller. The kW power is sampled by a fixed time, and it is then compared to the limit set by the user. An algorithm that has been developed and set up in the microcontroller will then decide to turn off the appropriate load/s. Finally, user then will get notification which load has been controlled. The system has been tested in lab and proven to limit the kW electricity consumption and hence reducing the maximum demand charges.

PA-54: Comparison Study Between PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller in AVR
Student: ZAINUL ARIFFIN BIN MOHD ZAIN, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Fadli bin Rahmat

Voltage regulator is very essential in controlling a fixed output voltage given changes in its input voltage or load conditions. The conventional technologies to control the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) shows low robustness and time-consuming when it is tuned. In this paper, the comparison study of a fuzzy logic and a PID controller for AVR is presented. The aim of this work is to give a better understanding in the characteristics of AVR as a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) and develop a controller of AVR using PID and Fuzzy Logic controller. The simulation made is based on single machine infinite bus system. Fuzzy logic controller is formed from three sets of rules which are based on fuzzification, rule evaluation and defuzzification. The performances for both PID and Fuzzy logic controller are compared in term of AVR terminal voltage output stability. It is suggested that PID offer better performance compared to FLC.

PA-55: An Optimal Under Frequency Load Shedding Using Rate of Change of Frequency
Student: MOHAMAD NOOR AFIQ BIN SHAFIEE, Supervisor: Prof Ir Dr Abdullah Asuhaimi bin Mohd Zin

Subtrack: PB - Power Electronics & Drives

PB-01: Simple AC Generator using Five Level Cascaded H Bridge Multilevel Inverter For Small Electrical Appliances
Student: AHMAD SYAQIEM BIN OSMAN, Supervisor: Norjulia Mohamad Nordin

A power electronics converter is a device or equipment that converts one form of electrical source into another form that have different properties than the previous form. An inverter is another form of converter that converts a direct current (DC) source into an alternating current (AC) source using electronic components as the switch to modify the output of the inverter such as mosfet and diode. The inverter main application is Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). Due to its advantages, a variety of topologies has been introduced but the topology that will be the main focus in this thesis is the Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter (CHMI). Various modulation methods are presented and the multicarrier pulse width modulation (PWM) method will be used because of its simplicity compared to other techniques that focuses on converting the current from DC source to AC source. In this project, MATLAB/Simulink is used to build circuit models and the modulation method to produce output waveforms of the CHMI. Then, implement the hardware to make sure this project can run smoothly. The results must be the prototype can run smoothly and function properly.

PB-02: Wireless Charging Using Magnetic Resonance Coupling
Student: AHMAD ZULHUSNI BIN MAT ZAID, Supervisor: Mohd Zaki bin Daud

In today’s world, the application of these portable electronic devices, electrical vehicle and medical faced the problem of transmitting power through wires or cables which limit their free positioning usage. Advances in the wireless communication technology have enabled a wide variety of portable consumer electronics, industrial devices and medical. However, the user is still to require to manually plug in these mobile device thus make the convenient method using traditional plugin socket to charging cannot satisfy consumers’ demands. Through wireless power transfer using magnetic resonance coupling, the power will transfer from the source to the load without using any type of physical interconnection and users can charge devices without exposed conductors, interlocks, and connectors. The main purpose of this report is to provide the reader with a comprehensive study of theory, design, fabrication, results and problem encountered in the project. Basically this project is consisting of two part which is transmitter and receiver. The frequency is measured which to make sure the frequency that power transfer from the transmitter are same as the receiver to minimize the losses during the transfer process. The maximum distance achieved is 13.4 cm forward. This project can be improved by increase the frequency or supply voltage. The high frequency can transmit power better while high voltage can increase voltage receive at the receiver. At the end of the project, a prototype of the wireless charging system targeted for low power electronic devices are developed and tested.

PB-03: Smart Solar LED Street Lighting System
Student: AZRIN SAZWANI BINTI ROSLEE, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Awang bin Jusoh

The solar street lighting system becomes more common these days with the increased use of solar power. The existing system is like; the street lights will be switched on from evening until the next morning. Improving the efficiency and conserving the energy are the aims of Stand Alone Smart Solar LEDs Streetlight system. So, the idea of the project is to design and to implement the system based on the above requirements as well as to reduce the electrical power wastage. In this project, the prototype system which focuses only for the one-way road consists of a PV panel, storage system, microcontroller, LEDs and sensors. Two sensors are used are Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) to indicate a day/night time and Passive Infrared (PIR) to detect any movement on the street. The Arduino UNO microcontroller with ATmega328 is used to control the operation of the street light system including switching, integrating sensor output and controlling driver circuit. Furthermore, this system has a functionality to control the brightness of the LEDs. So, the effect of changing the duty cycle of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) was observed and recorded. The information of situation happening will be shown on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). As conclusion this system can save 15-20% amount of energy and the objectives of the system has been achieved.

PB-04: LED Emergency Light
Student: HAIRUL BIN JAYIDDIN, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Rodhi bin Sahid

This thesis reports process of designing and simulating an LED Emergency Light using a multiple output Flyback converter with certain value specifications. Power bank is used as the 5V DC input of Flyback converter, and then stepped up to a voltage that suit with LED string load. Power MOSFET is used as switching device to control the operation of Flyback converter which reduces the switching losses. This circuit consists of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique that generated switching signal by SG3525 to drive MOSFET at specific switching frequency. The control signal is amplified using MOSFET driver IR4247 to drive the MOSFET. Transformer and auxiliary power supply is designed using bobbin ETD29 to supply voltage to the PWM circuit. Passive Infrared sensor (PIR) and relay integrated with ARDUINO UNO is used to control the secondary side of the Flyback converter. Value of the designed Flyback converter is obtained from the calculation and Matlab is used to simulate the circuit using the designed parameter. Detailed results and analysis is also presented in this report.

PB-05: Low cost buck converter for education system
Student: HALIMAHTUL SAADIAH BINTI ULUN AZMI, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Rodhi bin Sahid

This project is about power electronic conversion techniques for switch mode power of buck converter topology. Buck converter is a DC –DC converter that step down the voltage 15V DC to a desired voltage 5V DC. The future demand is looking towards the converter that has highest efficiency and capability to produce regulated voltage. Regarding to this, microcontroller is used to perform task that produce signal with constant duty cycle to drive the switch (MOSFET) of buck converter. The switch then will be the input of the converter to switch the MOSFET to produce the output. In addition, PID controller method will be use to increased the stability of the system. The controller will be implemented on (DPIC30F4011) microcontroller and this program will be automatically control the control algorithm and modulator that produce stable output to the system. Simulation of this project has been done through software (MATLAB) to identify the parameter and the prototype has been done on Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

PB-06: Child Monitoring Device using Microcontroller and Smartphone
Student: ILI SHAFIQAH BINTI EMBONG, Supervisor: Dr Tan Chee Wei

The design and implementation of Child Monitoring Device (CMD) for tracking the location of child is presented in this report. The device is designed to receive Global Positioning System (GPS) information via internet and web server, store them into a database and relay them to an Android’s application in a smartphone for viewing. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a well-known as a system that can gives present information such as velocity, time information, latitude and longitude of anywhere on earth by satellite uplink. Smartphones and internet plays a huge role in our life by making our work such as communicating, navigating and information search much easier at a touch of a button. This system is made up of two main parts, one hold by the child and one is monitored by the parents using a smartphones application. The user requirements are only the installation of the application inside each GPS enabled Android smartphone and an internet connection in order to retrieve location data. The child is also need to wear a wearable device. The device carried by the parents is the master and the wearable device carried by the child is the slave. This device is made to reduce the main concern of the parents which is losing their children in open area spaces. It is also may decreased the probability of disappearance of the child in public places. This product is based on the cases where the children were escaped from the parent’s supervision. Parents will be informed about the location of the child and aware from any missing occurs.

PB-07: Solar Micro Inverter
Student: MOHD ARRIF BIN HASHIM, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Naziha binti Ahmad Azli

Generally, coal and petroleum are the energy sources used to generate electricity. The other method to generate electricity is by using solar energy or known as photovoltaic (PV). Photovoltaic is used to convert solar energy into electrical energy using semiconducting materials. This report presents the simulation design of a solar micro inverter system. The PV module is modelled based on the parameters obtained from a commercial PV data sheet and previous work. A maximum power point tracking method is also included in the model to ensure optimum use of the PV module. A boost converter is chosen to step up the input DC voltage of the PV module while a single-phase full-bridge pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter is chosen to convert the input DC from the boost converter into AC output. The PWM output of the inverter is then filtered by a low pass LC filter to eliminate harmonics that occur at the higher frequency. The solar micro inverter system is modelled and implemented using Matlab/Simulink. The results have shown that the simulation model developed can successfully produce an output voltage of 240 Vrms at 50 Hz, based on the design specification of the solar micro inverter system.  

PB-08: Speed Control of DC Brushed Motor Using Buck-Boost Converter For Automower Applications
Student: MUHAMMAD AIMAN BIN HASNAN, Supervisor: Norjulia Mohamad Nordin

This paper proposes an alternative for controlling the duty ratio of power MOSFET for buck-boost converter application using Arduino UNO to drive the gate drive circuit and in turn drive the DC Brushless Motor. The main contribution of this work is the simplicity and flexibility to change the duty ratio of gate drive circuit using Arduino IDE Software without changing the hardware component of the gate drive circuit. This is achieved by using Arduino PWM which require to be step up using MC34063 DC-DC Switching Regulator from 5V to 15V. This require an external power source to trigger or turn-off the MOSFET in the buck-boost converter. The opto-coupler of HCPL-3120 is used to convert the electrical input signal into an isolated output to avoid any distortion cause by the fast change voltage side to another side. A simulation study of buck-boost supplied a DC motor is performed using MATLAB followed by the hardware implementation to verify the feasibility of the system. The PCB layouts are designed using Fritzing software. By controlling the on and off time of the MOSFET, the duty cycle of the buck-boost converter will change. Consequently, the output voltage of the buck-boost converter can be maintained. The modelling method is useful for power converter designers and circuit simulator developers who require simple, fast yet accurate model for the buck-boost converter application.

Student: MUHAMMAD 'AIZAT BIN HASNAN, Supervisor: Nik Din bin Muhamad

This project demonstrates the steps in designing power regulator using both linear and non-linear (switching) regulator of DC-DC converters to regulate the current and voltage at the output load with combination of Peak Current-Mode Controller (PCMC) as a feedback controller. The main contribution of this design is the high performance in maintaining constant output current regardless if there is load change or changes in input voltage will not interrupt the output current; thus maintaining suitable output current to the LEDs. The idea is that PCMC will monitor the error at the output voltage and at the same time maintaining the voltage required by the linear regulator at the output by adjusting the duty ratio of the switching regulator so that the output current remain constant. This combination of linear and non-linear regulator in the design will able to have flexible control of the output current gain and avoid overcurrent from occurring. To control the output current, PCMC design is used to sense the inductor current and the output voltage at the load. Any changes in the output voltage will be sense and eventually trigger the flip-flop to change the duty ratio of the gate driver. It is shown that the duty ratio required is below 50% where a ramp compensator will not be needed. Fuzzy logic will also be used in the cooling fan system to monitor the temperature of the LEDs. This design is useful to control output current with ease and can save a lot of energy.

Student: MUHAMMAD ALI HAFIZUDDIN, Supervisor: Norjulia Mohamad Nordin

This project proposes a method to control a DC motor by using a dual converter for a simple conveyor application. Dual converter consists of forward and reverse converter which can produce two polarity DC output from AC rectification. By using this converter, a DC motors can be operated in two quadrant (forward motoring and reverse motoring) with multiple speed control. Two thyristor-controlled bridge rectifier is used in this dual converter. The motor speed control is achieved by triggering of each bridge thyristor at different firing angles to get different voltage outputs hence producing a various speed for DC motor by using a microcontroller. A pair of switches is used to input logical signal for the desired output, which controls the selection of speed and direction. For the purpose of demonstrating, this project is scaled down to a smaller prototype which uses 240 volt AC at the input and stepped down to 12 volt AC to feed the thyristor bridges that will eventually power up a 12 volt DC motor.

PB-11: Control of Trackless Automated Pallet Jack
Student: MUHAMMAD HASIF BIN YUSOFF, Supervisor: Dr Tan Chee Wei

In every large factories plant around the world, automation system is a must. One of the popular automation system that being used nowadays are AGV, or Automated Guided Vehicle. Most of these AGVs are using single line track on the floor as the guidance. Besides AGVs, pallet jack are also one of the widely used tool in a plant. Thus, an automated guided pallet jack would be a very useful tool in the industry. The problem with line tracking AGVs are it requires more cost and long initial setup time as track lines needed to be install first. Moreover, the track can be damaged, due to some heavy machines or trolley that may cross on the track lines. To avoid this problem, I suggesting that trackless control need to be use. For this project, instead of using real pallet jack, a small robot base with differential navigation is used as a representative. To guide the trackless automated vehicle, SLAM technique is implemented along with depth sensor for avoid obstacles. ROS (Robot Operating System) are being used as the main software. From the obtained initial results, the robot base can move to the designated coordinate in a map, without any track line installation. This system can be used in the industry and will save more cost and setup time.

Student: MUHAMMAD NOR AL-HAFIZ BIN ABU BAKRI, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Rodhi bin Sahid

Currently Light Emitting Diode (LED) is wide use and excellent choice as lighting device because of the faster growth in LED technology with have many features which are small size, high luminous efficiency, long lifetime and relatively low power consumption. Main objective of this project is to design automation of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) dimming LED where system operates by reducing automatically LED light intensity at the bright place. Therefore, driver circuit with PWM control is proposed for control dimming of LED. The driver consists of combination between Full Bridge Rectifier which firstly converts the AC source to DC form and Flyback topology as DC to DC converter to step down the voltage at the particular value within range of Multicomp 1W high power LED standard. Dimming feature is accomplished by implement the PWM technique by adjusting the duty cycle value of the switching frequency and power MOSFET is selected as the switching device to reduce switching losses. Besides that, switching signal of PWM is generated by using PWM controller (SG3525) and Arduino microcontroller at specific switching frequency value. After that, Gate driver (TC4427) is used to amplify the signal so that it will be able to drive the MOSFET. Flyback design parameters are known through calculation and the values are taken for simulation using MATLAB software. Proteus8 software is used in order to design the circuit and implemented at the PCB board. Circuit designs are tested and results obtained are presented.

PB-13: Dual-axis photovoltaic tracker with motorize photovoltaic panel cleaning

Nowadays, energy demand keeps increasing year by year and by year 2020, energy supply is incapable to fulfil the energy demand. Photovoltaic systems is more suitable in this country since the statistic of solar irradiance in Malaysia is high. This project aims to construct a photovoltaic system that gives more accuracy to absorb the sunlight. The dual-axis tracker is capable of following the direction of sunlight, by using the LDR sensor. To fulfil the aim of this project, a hardware and software has been developed. Two servo motors are used to control the movement of solar panel for y-axis and also x-axis. Also, a motor wiper has been designed in very detail to ensure that it is suitable to be used with a photovoltaic panel and it is the one of innovation. It can help the user to do cleaning process and besides keeping the efficiency of photovoltaic as high as possible. L298N relay is used for controlling the forward and backward movement of the motor wiper for cleaning process. Mini water pump is also used to supply water during the cleaning process. This dual-axis photovoltaic panel is using the sunlight energy to supply power to the controller. Since the Arduino and mini water pump need 12 V power supply to operate, a buck converter has been designed and constructed on a PCB to step down the supply from 18 V to 12 V. The result show that the dual-axis photovoltaic tracker able to follow the movement of sunlight and able to clean a photovoltaic panel by using motor wiper.

PB-14: Repulsive Magnetic Levitation Chess Using Arduino XY-Table
Student: MUHAMMAD RUSYDI AMIN BIN SAMSUDIN, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Junaidi Abdul Aziz

Magnetic levitation is the process that used the principle of electromagnetism to float the object in the air against gravitational force. From the research, it states that repulsive magnetic levitation is naturally unstable. Thus, the main purpose of the project is to produce a stable magnetic levitation system, which can float an object using magnetic repulsion and the object can be moved freely by using programmable XY-table. A strong focus is shown on the stability and positioning control of the system and therefore a chess set is chosen as it is suitable for applying the maglev system in small scale prototype. During the project, a repulsive magnetic levitation system was designed, mathematically modelled for preliminary simulation and simulated in Matlab Simulink. The real hardware is built and then programmed the system using C language. From the findings, it showed that Matlab Simulink could be used to simulate the nonlinear representative of the system. From the simulations, a PID controller was designed, tuned and used to control the prototype of the levitation system. The parameter from the simulation and hardware is compared. The prototype is able to stabilized the object during levitation but will fail if the gain values of PID are adjusted. In conclusion, the system is able to levitate an object without any failure and both magnetic levitation system and XY-table system are successfully integrated.

PB-15: Multicolour LED Matrix
Student: MUHAMMAD SAUFI BIN ZAMIL, Supervisor: Nik Din bin Muhamad

The Multicolour LED matrix is a combination of RGB Light Emitting Diode (LED) that is connected in an axis using multiplexing technique to display any animation using the Arduino software. The Multicolour LED is a light source that is able to produce different variation of colour. The LED main colour is Red, Green and Blue colour LED thus, the name RGB LED is given. Using this three colour, a different colour can be created using the combination of this colour. In the project, the RGB LED is used as a display for animation purposes. The aim for the project is to be able to save power while using a display such as television. Using the RGB LED is not also saves power, it is also has a longer lifespan compare to traditional television. The project involve in using a driver circuit controlled using Arduino microcontroller. The program involved are the Arduino Uno software and the Glediator (Graphical LED Animator) software. The Arduino software is used to control the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal used for the driver and the Glediator software is used for the animation of the LED. The software is specially design for the Arduino software. The display uses 100 RGB LED connected in a matric using the multiplexing technique. The design criteria is to be able to power the RGB LED matric with minimal power supply to avoid power loss due to heat and increase the LED lifespan.

PB-16: 5-Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter In PV Application
Student: NOOR ATIQAH BINTI NAWAWI, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Naziha binti Ahmad Azli

Nowadays, demand on photovoltaic (PV) systems is getting higher. The need for a harmonic free and high power rated source has increased in order to meet the requirement from the industries. This project focuses on a 5-level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter (CHMI) in PV application. Compared to the conventional inverters, with a 5-level CHMI, the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage is expected to be better. A Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique was implementing on the CHMI to synthesize the performance of the output voltage by using PV as the input. The simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed inverter. This project is to reduce THD contributed by the level of inverter.

Student: NORHAYATI BINTI MOHD FUZI, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Junaidi Abdul Aziz

The common insect repellent are applied to clothing or directly to skin to prevent bites and keep insect away. They are commonly sold in the form of sprays or oil. Insect repellent helps to avoid the outbreak of diseases like malaria and dengue fever that are typically borne by insect. For this project, ultrasonic speaker was choose as a device to repel an insect instead of chemical substances. This ultrasonic speaker do not harmful to human because the frequency choose is higher than human can hear which is 22 kHz. Human can hear sound up to 20 kHz but insect can hear sound up to 35 kHz. The speaker for this insect repellent can deliver sound up to 22 kHz which suite with frequency to repel an insect. Flyback DC-DC Converter was implement for this insect repellent. There are two controller circuit used in this converter which is PWM controller and timer. PWM controller was used to generate signal for switching to power switch which is MOSFET at primary side. The output from PWM controller was drive to HCPL 3180 octocoupler so that it will be an input for MOSFET. For safety reason the supply was isolated by using IL1215S. The second controller which is timer was used at secondary side as a sound circuit. The output from timer will be an input to MOSFET before connect to speaker because the output current from timer is too small. The result from hardware was analysed and compared with simulation.

PB-18: Wireless Power Transfer
Student: NUR AISYAH BINTI MOHD LANI, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Junaidi Abdul Aziz

Wireless power transfer is a method discovered by Nikola Tesla on the transfer of power through the air (S.Y.R. Hui, 2014). In order to move towards advanced technology environment, this system had been implemented by several companies such as Powermat, PowerByProxi and Qi. Their rapid growth in promoting the wireless charging application had attracted many users. Nowadays, the application of wireless power had been implemented in wireless battery charger. Tesla in his patent “System of Transmission of Electrical Energy” concluded that wireless power transfer can be done by using induction coupling. The method can be used for short-range, mid-range and high-range (S.Y.R. Hui, 2014). This paper explain on the design and development of wireless power transfer using induction coupling and the study of effect of increasing the distance and improving the efficiency in wireless power transfer. In addition, a simulation of the system using MATLAB and Simulink on the pattern of the output of the system is explained further. The guidance of the steps on how to build the product is also included.

PB-19: Solar Charger
Student: NUR HISHAM BIN MOKTAR, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Rodhi bin Sahid

Renewable energy such as solar and photovoltaic technology has become more popular and commercialized in this age of time, which can be harnessed to be a portable power source. However, renewable energy has a challenge which the magnitude of the input power is dependent on atmospheric or environmental conditions. Therefore, a Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) can be used to regulate the fluctuating input from such input to charge a power bank for daily usage. Since most of our daily portable devices require a 5V DC input, a DC-DC converter is required to convert electricity from photovoltaics for the use of portable electronic devices. In this project, a closed-loop Buck Converter is designed to regulate variable input to produce a stable 5V output through the use of power MOSFET as a switch, which produce the output through regulation of duty cycle from PWM circuit. Simulation has been done through software which is MATLAB to identify the parameters with hardware implementation as the prototype that will be done in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that emulates a circuit with variable input.

PB-20: An Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverter In Photovoltaic (PV) Application
Student: NUR IFFAH AMIRAH BINTI YUSOP, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Naziha binti Ahmad Azli

In power electronics, one of the most significant recent advances to convert DC source voltage to an AC output voltage is Multilevel Inverter (MLI). MLI is popularly used due to its advantages in improving the efficiency of a system. MLI typically involves medium to high power applications including photovoltaic (PV) as a renewable energy (RE) source. The performance of the system depends on the harmonics in the MLI output voltage. The MLI structure allows reduced harmonic distortion in its output voltage waveform. This project focuses on an Asymmetrical Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Inverter (ACHMI) topology as the power converter in PV application. Both MLI use Phase Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PDPWM) as its modulation technique to generate the output voltage. The operation of the ACHMI in PV application is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the MLI. It indicates improved performance compared to the Symmetrical Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Inverter (SCHMI) due to the increase in the number of output voltage levels.

PB-21: Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking Converter for Photovoltaic Applications
Student: NUR SHAHIRA BINTI AZMI, Supervisor: Dr Tan Chee Wei

Nowadays, photovoltaic energy system is strongly recommended in our daily lives. Despite the high capital cost, a photovoltaic system produces renewable energy and does not harm the environment. This project aims to construct a converter that is able to harvest the maximum power from a photovoltaic panel by implementing an MPPT (maximum power point tracking) algorithm on a DC-DC boost converter that is fed by a solar panel. Typically, the operating point of a photovoltaic system is seldom at the PV module’s maximum power point (MPP), which means it is not the maximum power. Therefore, improvisation in terms of power harvest is a must. There are many MPPT algorithms available, but in this project, only the Perturb & Observe algorithm is used. In the meantime, a hardware implementation is done by constructing the circuit of a maximum power point tracking converter on a PCB, in which it is supplied by a solar panel. The P&O MPPT algorithm is implemented in the boost converter with the use of Arduino Uno as microcontroller. The Arduino controller C language programming is compiled by using the Arduino 1.6.5 version compiler. At the end of this project, the converter is able to track maximum power out of a solar panel at any environmental condition. Meanwhile, the results of this project is presented in the form of PV characteristic curve of the photovoltaic panel after implementation of MPPT converter which will be compared to the manufacturer’s data sheet to prove that the aim is achieved.

PB-22: A Constant Current Control of Power Led Buck Converter Driver
Student: NURHAFIZAH BINTI AZMI, Supervisor: Nik Din bin Muhamad

This project focused on driving white power leds by using DC to DC converter.Buck converter is one of the switching regulators that has been widely use for lighting applications nowadays, replacing the conventional linear regulators that have high power loss in the system.It is used for stepping down the input voltage to the required output voltage. For this project, a constant current control of power led buck converter driver is used as the main idea for the project implementation by using MC34063 chip in Buck topology. Besides,1 Watt white power LED is chosen due to its longer life, higher reliability and overall cost effectiveness as the new technology demand in our country increases. Based on typical characteristic of high power LED, the tiny voltage changes will lead to huge changes in current and finally affect the lighting intensity. Therefore, a constant current control method design is used to operate the high power LED while maintaining the brightness of power LED with desired output current of 350mA and applied voltage of 12V. Lastly, The circuit is simulated and implemented on the PCB layout by pspice and multisim software.

PB-23: Electric Skateboard
Student: SAIFUL HAZREEN BIN ABDUL HALIM, Supervisor: Dr Mohd Junaidi Abdul Aziz

Nowadays, many numerous application using Direct Current (DC) motor are popular among developer around the world. DC motor application is using drive configuration that involves speed and powers. Various application can develop for the greater future because DC motor has a user-friendly characteristic and extravagant performance. This project is primarily focused on design and develop an electric skateboard. This project is operated by DC motor that powered by using rechargeable lead acid batteries. This electric skateboard is control by using microcontroller Arduino and radio frequency to control the speed of the DC motor. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is applied in the project to vary the voltage to produce the various speed to the DC motor. This electric skateboard is using first quadrant of operation to control the DC motor. This quadrant of operation is selected because this electric skateboard only needed forward motoring to the system. Breaking is not needed because it still keep the value of regular skateboard which the skateboard is steered by the rider shifting his own weight. The component for this project is attach by bolt and nut. The motor is connected by using sprocket and chain to the tyre. Several part being in refinement process to make the joining fit very well. This project manage to work properly after all work done.

PB-24: Power Bank Charger using Thermoelectric Generator
Student: SUZAILY BIN MORSHIDI, Supervisor: Mohd Zaki bin Daud

Mobile phones may be getting smarter, faster and more capable, but when their batteries run out just hours after you charged them. The backup power supply such as power bank can be used but after a longer period of time off-grid such as camping for a few days, it also will run out of power. The efficiency of woodstove is quite low (typically ranging from 11% to 18%), it is good if we can benefit the wasted heat energy and convert it to electricity. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is one of the renewable energy sources that available off-grid for charging these power bank and at the same time able to increase the percentage of useful heat energy from woodstove. TEG module will generate voltage between it two terminals when there are temperature different between hot-side and cold-side. In this project, the prototype of power bank charger using thermoelectric generator has been designed, built and tested in order to charge the power bank at 5V voltage rating. The closed-loop boost DC-DC converter being used in order to regulate the varying voltage from TEG. The charging current for power bank from this prototype is relatively low if compared to typical charging method due to the limitation of the TEG itself. In conclusion, this project could become one of the must-have gadget for the outdoor activities lover.

PB-25: Solar Charger with Improved P&O Algorithm
Student: TENGKU YUSTHAFI PUTRA BIN TENGKU YUSGO, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Awang bin Jusoh

Perturb and Observe (P&O) is a popular Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm used to maximize power output by photovoltaic solar systems. The main problem of this power point tracking algorithm is that it is slow to get to the maximum power point. Can this algorithm be improved? This project intent to utilize an improved perturb and observe algorithm using Arduino as the controller. This project will measure the performance of the algorithm by looking at the response time of the algorithm to find maximum power point. My initial hypothesis was the improved P&O algorithm will have better response time performance. Initial results supported my hypothesis by showing that the algorithm is fast in searching for maximum power point under changing irradiation. This will also increase the efficiency of the MPPT.

PB-26: Control of Power LED Brightness using Arduino with IR Remote
Student: ZULHILMI BIN MAT JUSOH, Supervisor: Nik Din bin Muhamad

Nowadays, Light Emitting Diode (LED) is the most commonly used in the general lightning application because it has longer lifetime up to 10000 hours, fast response and in smaller size. This project is to study the basic of flyback converter with current mode control and to control the brightness of power LED (1W LED) by using the switching of pulse width modulation (PWM) technic by supplying the input power for power LED using the constant current source or constant voltage source (flyback converter).The microcontroller, Arduino is used as the main part of this project to control the PWM by using the Arduino default frequency, 490Hz controlling by the multiple of IR remote. The programming code is designed to communicate between the Arduino, the IR remote the IR receiver using the Arduino programming. This default frequency value is used to avoid any acoustic issue occur to the human. The HCPL 3120 is used to amplify the PWM signal from the Arduino to the MOSFET (act as switch) so that the MOSFET can be controlled at its characteristics. This project manages to work properly after all work done which is the IR remote can control the brightness of power LED.

Student: CHA JUN FU, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Awang bin Jusoh

Subtrack: PC - High Voltage

PC-01: Analysis of Acoustic Signals Due to Different Height of Free Moving Particle
Student: AHMAD REDZUAN BIN OMAR, Supervisor: Prof Dr Ahmad bin Darus

Nowadays, many numerous application using Direct Current (DC) motor are popular among developer around the world. DC motor application is using drive configuration that involves speed and powers. Various application can develop for the greater future because DC motor has a user-friendly characteristic and extravagant performance. This project is primarily focused on design and develop an electric skateboard. This project is operated by DC motor that powered by using rechargeable lead acid batteries. This electric skateboard is control by using microcontroller Arduino and radio frequency to control the speed of the DC motor. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is applied in the project to vary the voltage to produce the various speed to the DC motor. This electric skateboard is using first quadrant of operation to control the DC motor. This quadrant of operation is selected because this electric skateboard only needed forward motoring to the system. Breaking is not needed because it still keep the value of regular skateboard which the skateboard is steered by the rider shifting his own weight. The component for this project is attach by bolt and nut. The motor is connected by using sprocket and chain to the tyre. Several part being in refinement process to make the joining fit very well. This project manage to work properly after all work done.

PC-02: Plasma Jet Design for Biomedical Application
Student: AMIRUL HIDAYAT BIN ABDUL RAZAK, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Zolkafle bin Buntat

Plasma jet have attracted lots of attention among researcher in the past two decades because it has advantages in the medical field. The cost to build a device that can generate plasma at earlier stage was very expensive and also have a complex design. Plasma jet with the complex design is difficult to repair when there are any damages in the device, moreover it relates to a gas pipe connection. In this project, the plasma jet with low cost and simpler design have been created for medical field usage. The plasma jet design used dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) concept which is two high voltage electrode were separated by glass tube, oxygen or helium gas is then channelled into the glass tube to generate plasma plume. The main functions of the plasma jet is to kill or disinfection the microorganism such as fungus and bacteria that can damage useful organism. Therefore, seed sprouts were used as experiment in this project. There are two beakers which both of them contains several seed sprouts, and one of the beakers is exposed to the plasma. After one week, the seeds that exposed to the plasma grow fresh compare to the seeds that does not exposed to the plasma. This observation shows that the plasma jet has clean the seeds from organism that can hinder the growth of seeds sprouts.

PC-03: Application Of Led Street Lighting Replacing High Pressure Sodium Vapour (Hpsv) In Utm Skudai Campus
Student: ASYA'ARI BIN HAJI AHMAD ZULKEPLI, Supervisor: Dr Yanuar Zulardiansyah Arief

Since the invention of lamp by Thomas Edison on 1875, lighting by using electricity has become one of the desirable requirement for human race all around the world at night. From time to time, the lighting technology using electricity has been develop in concern for the application and the efficiency. Nowadays, high pressure sodium vapour (HPSV) commonly used for street lighting because of its low capital and maintenance cost. After a few decades of its application, latest technology by using light emitting diode (LED) where use less electricity power but give brighter light seems to be its replacement. The application of LED street lighting at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia is still at the early stage. The first and only application in UTM is at second link and Dataran Ilmu base on RMKe-9 at the Bio Science Faculty on year 2010. These small application shows a good feedback base on its safety and efficiency of the application. In concern for the efficiency that can reduce electricity, the application should be wider in UTM by replacing existing HPSV streetlight with led. Therefore, this study will focus on the ability of the LED street lighting to full fill the requirement in compare to HPSV at Linkaran Ilmu at UTM. Onsite measurement for HPSV and a led stimulation will be done to compare the ability to full fill the requirements. Along the comparison, the return on investment (ROI) will be calculate to measure the payback period is within the warranty period by the manufacturer.

PC-04: Fractal Analysis of Electrical Tree Grown in Silicone Rubber Nanocomposites
Student: AZELLA BINTI ABD AZIZ, Supervisor: Mohd Hafizi bin Ahmad

Electrical tree is one of the main reasons for long term degradation of high voltage insulation especially the insulation of cable accessory which commonly made from silicone rubber. Recently, the combination of nanocomposites with the silicone rubber can reduce the possibility of retarding the electrical treeing from growth due to the potential of improving the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. The electrical treeing has complex structural characteristics that are difficult to be described. This project involves the experiment and analysis for obtaining the electrical tree in silicone rubber nanocomposites. Thus, the aiming of this report is to investigate the characteristics of electrical tree grown in silicone rubber with silica as nanofiller using fractal analysis. Box-counting method was used to analyse the fractal dimension and lacunarity to obtain the structure of electrical tree pattern during growth. In this study, the nanosilica acts as barrier which slows down the growth rate of electrical tree. The structure of electrical tree by adding the nanocomposite in silicone rubber has the higher fractal dimension and lacunarity compared with silicone rubber without nanocomposite due to the electrical treeing patterns produced during the experiment.

PC-05: A Comparative Study On the Performance Of Palm Oil And Mineral Oil In Distribution Transformer Under Load Variation
Student: HANIS FARHAH BINTI JAMAHORI, Supervisor: Dr Yanuar Zulardiansyah Arief

Mineral oil is the common insulating liquids that has been used for centuries due to its high dielectric properties, low viscosity, and inexpensive. However, it lacks in the ability to comply with the environmental and safety laws. Due to these deficiencies concern, and cost considerations on its long term working life span, many researches are being done to replace the use of mineral-based oil with a biodegradable insulating oil. Currently in Malaysia, most researches conducted were focused to study on the properties of alternative insulating oils, rather than study on how these oils affect the performance of transformer. In order to fulfil environmental, safety and health requirements, palm oil is used in this study as an insulating oil inside the power transformer. Due to its non-acidic and biodegradable properties, palm oil brings no harm to human nor environment in case of any serious spillage occur. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study on the performance of palm oil and mineral oil as an insulation oil inside distribution transformers. The performance comparison between both insulating oils has been made in order to determine whether palm oil can be used as an alternative or total replacement to mineral oil. The performance of transformer based on the efficiency, power losses, and hot-spot temperature are studied during online condition, and under load variations. Based on the result obtained, it is found that palm oil can be used as an alternative to replace mineral oil in distribution transformer.

PC-06: The Effect of Low Nanosilica Content On The Breakdown Strength of Low Density Polyethylene
Student: JOEYRIDE ROWENN JOM, Supervisor: Dr Lau Kwan Yiew

Polymer nanocomposites have become one of the popular topics of research in the field of engineering materials due to their capability for improving the electrical insulation performances in terms of breakdown strength if they are prepared and fabricated properly. The AC breakdown strength of nanocomposite materials obtained from the dispersion of different amounts of nanosilica into the low density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix was investigated in this study. Samples containing 0 wt%, 0.3 wt%, 0.6 wt% and 1 wt% of nanosilica were considered. The samples were prepared by using a mechanical blending method at 140oC in 15 minutes, followed by hot plate press at 160°C in 4 minutes, and then cooled within a hydraulic press (with running water), while the breakdown measurements were performed according to ASTM D149 under AC step voltage of 1kV in every 20 seconds. Based on the Weibull analysis, the samples containing 0 wt%, 0.6 wt% and 1 wt% of nanosilica had similar breakdown strength, whereas the sample containing 0.3 wt% of nanosilica showed enhanced performance. Therefore, a positive effect on the breakdown performance can be obtained from the dispersion of low nanofiller loading on the polyethylene when compared to the unfilled polyethylene.

PC-07: Characteristics of Preliminary Breakdown Pulses (PBPs) on Negative Return Strokes in Malaysia
Student: MAIZATULFARHANA BINTI MAHMOOD, Supervisor: Dr Noor Azlinda bte Ahmad

This paper describes a study on the characteristics of preliminary breakdown pulses (PBPs) on negative return strokes in Malaysia. The lack of observation on lightning preliminary breakdown in Malaysia is one of the reasons why this study was conducted. Besides, the understanding of lightning initiation process can be improved due to this study. The breakdown-intermediate-leader stage (BIL) and breakdown-leader stage (BL) are types of preliminary breakdown pulses obtained in this study. These measurement on electric field breakdown pulses were conducted in Johor Bahru, Malaysia in May 2015 using parallel plate and RF antenna. The waveform was analysed using MATLAB to categorize the types of preliminary breakdown pulses. The results of 50 analysed data show that 82% of the cloud to ground flashes preceded by PBPs. About 37% of PBP suit the BIL type while 63% suit the BL type. The characterization of preliminary breakdown and their data shows that there are no linear correlation between type of PBPs and location of lightning strike.

PC-08: The Influence of Material Processing Methods on the Breakdown Strength of Polyethylene, Silica Nanocomposites
Student: MARY ANN ANAK MATTIEW, Supervisor: Dr Lau Kwan Yiew

Processing methods are parts of an important criteria when investigating the breakdown strength of nanocomposites. This study reviews how crystallization plays a crucial role on the resulting properties of nanocomposites. A blend of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) were used as polymers with 80:20 ratios whereas 1 wt% silica, SiO2 acts as nanofillers for the nanocomposites. Unfilled polyethylene blend was also prepared for comparison. The mixtures were premixed in a plastic bag and later undergo mechanical blend using a two-roll mill for 15 minutes. After subjected to hydraulic hot press at 160°C, the cooling processes of the prepared samples were varied to determine the effect of crystallization on the breakdown strength of the samples. The cooling processes are categorized by rapid, medium and slow cooling depends on the rate of heat loss. Referring to ASTM D149, the breakdown test was conducted using progressive-stress tests at a step voltage of 1 kV every 20 s. Weibull distribution analysis was used to analysed the breakdown strength. The results show that prepared samples have different breakdown strength with different cooling processes. Nanocomposites that undergo medium cooling has the highest breakdown strength. However, polyethylene has a reverse effect where medium-cooling shows the lowest breakdown strength. Differential scanning calorimetry technique is also implemented on the prepared samples to study the melting properties. For every samples, two peaks are observed on graphs to indicate thermal transitions of LDPE and HDPE.

Student: MOHAMAD HAZMAN BIN GHAZALI, Supervisor: Dr Yanuar Zulardiansyah Arief

Non-destructive method such as Polarization and Depolarization Current (PDC) test is one of dielectric diagnostic method to assess the condition of insulation material of high voltage (HV) apparatus. PDC test is measurement techniques that based on time domain measurement that used to determine the conductivity of the transformer insulation. This research was carried out to determine the conductivity of various type of insulator oil by using PDC test. There are six sample that involve in this study that is mineral oil and the rest is biodegradable oil with each sample will be varying five different gap between two electrode. In additional PDC test also will be conducted directly at the transformer by using mineral oil. The polarization and depolarization time will be subjected to 1,000 second for each test with 1000V applied DC voltage during charging process.

PC-10: Electrical Treeing Performance of Silicone Rubber Nanocomposite Treated with Plasma and Silane Coupling
Student: MOHAMAD NAQUIB BIN MORSIN, Supervisor: Dr Nouruddeen Bashir Umar (Dr Mohd Hafizi Ahmad)

In Malaysia, polymers are the main insulation materials for cable accessories, but up to the extent of composite interface and the cable accessories field concentration becomes a problem to a high voltage transmission cable system. The treeing is a kind of electrically induced crack phenomena in polymer materials and it is a serious threat to insulation. Therefore, lately the nanofillers treated with plasma has been proposed because the plasma has a characteristic of environment friendly and low cost production. Results have shown good performance of nanocomposites that is treated with plasma as well. However, more studies focused on chemical studies such as morphology, dispersion and binding energy, and less report on the electrical performance. Therefore, researchers have conducted a study using a silicone rubber (SiR) as insulation at a fixed supply voltage of 11kV and 50Hz frequency. To distinguish the electrical performance of nanocomposite plasma-treated with a silane coupling agent during electrical treeing. It managed to slow down the growth of electrical treeing and at the same time the partial discharge number increased. In addition, this study also used different concentrations of nanofillers which are 1wt%, 3wt% and 5wt%, and it was proven that the propagation time decreases as the concentration of nanofiller increases henceforth improving partial discharge.

PC-11: Air Termination Lightning Protection System Design of a Medium Voltage (33kV) Substation
Student: MOHAMAD NIZAM BIN ISMAIL, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Zulkurnain bin Abd. Malek

Lightning is a dangerous natural phenomenon in the world. Yet, it is still unpredictable. A lightning strike can cause damages to unprotected power system. This statement induced that an excellent lightning protection system is crucial prior to requirement of a power system. Lightning protection of a power system can be attained by providing a well grounded conductor above the structure in the power system so that the lightning can have the shortest way to ground thus protecting the system. In this project, the lightning protection system for a typical middle voltage (33kV) substation will be designed and assessed according to the defined parameters. A risk assessment on the lightning occurrence at the substation was conducted to identify the need of a lightning protection system for the substation. The included elements of lightning protection system of the substation were only air termination system which is consist of masts and shield wires. The result from this project has shown that the substation need an effective lightning protection system and some designs have been simulated to observe the performance of the designed lightning protection system according to the parameters. At the end of the project, a solution to lightning protection design guide for a typical substation will be proposed and recommendations for the improvement of the lightning protection system were being provided.

PC-12: The Characteristics of Polyester Coated Carbon Cable under Dc Stress
Student: MOHAMAD SALLEH BIN AHMAD ZAM, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohd. Muhridza bin Yaacob

An electrical cable plays the important role for delivering electricity from the generator to the consumer. The good electrical cable should reduce the power losses and increase the efficiency of power delivered by the generator to the consumer. Copper has a good electrical properties and that’s make it suitable to use as the conductor in transmission line. Nowadays, copper is widely used as a conductor in an electrical cable. The main problem is the increasing of cable theft activities due to higher demand of copper in the markets which cause million losses to Utilities Company. In this project, a new cable is suggested as a replacement of copper cable for domestic purpose. The core of the cable is formed using carbon fiber filament and derived from the carbonization of man-made fiber known as Polyester Coated Carbon (PCC) Cable. Firstly, the characteristics and electrical properties of material used in PCC cable will be studied. Then, the insulation properties of PCC and copper cable are determined through the high voltage testing. Three direct current (DC) test is conducted which is dielectric withstand voltage, induced voltage and recovery voltage. The performance of the PCC cable and copper cable is compared and discussed. At the end, PCC cable is determined whether can replace the copper cable for domestic purpose.

PC-13: Analysis of Lightning Protection System for Przs and P19a using Rolling Sphere Method
Student: MOHAMAD ZUL FAHMEE BIN ZAINUDIN, Supervisor: Dr Noor Azlinda bte Ahmad

This report investigates the design of the lightning protection system (LPS). The designs consist of the selection of the level of protection, a number and a position of the air termination rod to be installed on top of the selected buildings. Rolling sphere method is used to analyze the lightning protection system in several buildings in the vicinity of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) at Perpustakaan Raja Zarith Sofiah (PRZS) and P19a buildings. Simulation with computer software is used in order to determine the unprotected area at both buildings and from that, a suitable LPS design which consists of the number of air termination rod needed and the best position of rods to be placed. The results of simulation are suggested will be compared with the result from the design of the existing LPS at PRZS and P19a buildings. Therefore, further necessary improvement of the LPS at PRZS and P19a is proposed.

PC-14: Influence Of Corona Discharge On Data Transmission
Student: MOHAMMAD KHUDZIR BIN ROSMAN, Supervisor: Prof Dr Ahmad bin Darus

Corona is one type of partial discharge that occurred at sharp point when it is supplied with high voltage. It is undesirable in transmission line because it can cause power loss, purple glow and damages the insulation. Other than that, corona discharge also produces audible noise, ozone production and electromagnetic interference. Hissing noise and bluish luminescence occurrence are indicators to detect corona discharge. This experiment is conducted to study the influence of corona discharge on data transmission by using two laptops to act as sender and receiver. The medium for data transmission is Category 5 Local Area Network cables. The corona condition is created by having high voltage supply (HVAC) injected to the sharp point, in this case, using sharp screws. The distance of the sharp point to the ground is varied to create different intensity of the corona discharge. The measurement was repeated five times in order to take the average speed of the data transmission and time taken to complete the data transmission. The obtained result is compared by averaging the average speed and time taken to complete the data transmission. From the obtained results, it shows that the corona discharge affects data transmission as the corona intensifies.

PC-15: Measurement of Dielectric Properties of LDPE Nanocomposite using
Student: MOHAMMAD SYAMIM BIN MOHAMMAD BASRI, Supervisor: Mohd Hafizi bin Ahmad

Recently, many studies have been conducted on the measurement of dielectric properties of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) based nanocomposites and have produced different results. However, the study on the composition of LDPE polymer and Boron Nitride (BN) as nanofiller has not been given understood and comprehensive results. The dielectric spectroscopy measurement at “sub–hertz” frequency has also little interest among researchers as it often influenced by “conduction-like” effect. This report identified the dielectric properties of LDPE nanocomposite with BN as nanofiller by using dielectric spectroscopy method. The dielectric loss and permittivity for three different filler concentrations by 0wt%, 5wt% and 10wt% were investigated in the “sub-hertz” frequency ranges under room temperature condition. The cylindrical electrode with guard ring configuration was used to conduct the experiment as referred to ASTM D150 standard. The result revealed that filled polymer has lower dielectric loss compared to unfilled polymer. This sign of result shows that the presence of BN nanofiller has affected the dielectric properties of LDPE nanocomposite and thereby indicating BN nanofiller has contributed to the reinforcement of LDPE nanocomposite material in which has potential as high voltage insulation.  

PC-16: A Virtual Instrument And Analysis Of Slow And Fast Response Of Atmospheric Electric Field
Student: MOHD FAREEZ AKMAL BIN MOHD YUNOS, Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik (Dr Zuraimy Adzis)

Atmospheric electromagnetic fields due to lightning can be measured by parallel plate antenna. The problem is the need for an active buffer to obtain the voltage output for the parallel flat antenna to measure electric field of grounding lightning discharge. With the current Analog to Digital signal conversion technique, the aim is to log the voltage waveform into the computer directly with LabVIEW and Picoscope 3206B. Therefore, this study is to review existing method of parallel flat antenna output data acquisition to oscilloscopes via buffer and also to design an analog to digital converter combined with virtual lab workstation. The aim also is to construct system, conduct laboratory test and on-site electric field measurement. LabVIEW software is used as a medium to develop a virtual instrument due to its ability to analyze the signal and it connected to Picoscope 3206B. The data is collected and analyzed during normal condition and thunderstorm. It is found that the development of a virtual instrument using LabVIEW had provided a signal in the form of the waveform and it represent the condition of the atmospheric electric field. Results show that there is the difference in term of magnitude for difference condition atmospheric electric field and it proves that our method able to detect slow and fast atmospheric electric field. As a conclusion, the system setup is able to record the output waveforms from parallel flat antenna without the need of buffer. However, the system has not been simultaneously compared with measurements of traditional buffer-oscilloscope system.

PC-17: Radio Frequency Vehicle Stopper
Student: MOHD HASRI BIN AL-AZMI, Supervisor: Prof Dr Ahmad bin Darus

Radio Frequency vehicle stopper is the system that used a radio frequency signal to stop the vehicle. The purpose of the system is to help the authorities in preventing the illegal act of the road user such as street racing. That immoral act of the road users has caused many accidents, injury to the policemen and also contribute to property loss. The target is to use the system on the electronic circuit in the vehicle ignition system. One of the electronic circuit is capacitor discharge ignition (CDI) which responsible to produce spark for the engine. The system consist of two part which are transmitter and receiver part. The transmitter will be controlled by the authorities while the receiver were installed at the vehicle ignition system. Upon receiving the signal from the transmitter the system will cut off the supply voltage that go into the capacitor, it will cause the capacitor in the ignition system failed to discharge and cannot generate spark. Without sparks in the engine, the vehicle will slow down and eventually stop safely. The system was successfully tested on the real vehicle which is motorcycle Honda EX5. The system able to stop the vehicle safely without hurting the driver and also without damaging the electronic circuit in the vehicle. The transmitter also can control multiple vehicle in a time and has 40 meters radius of signal reach.

PC-18: Development of High Frequency Power Supply Using Single Switch Resonant Converter
Student: MUHAMAD AKMAL BIN BAHAMAN, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Zolkafle bin Buntat

Biomedical is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes. There are many applications in biomedical. These applications need the power supply to operate. Power supply in biomedical must consider the high frequency and stable voltage. The current power supply in biomedical has a voltage range 30kV-60kVpk-pk and frequency range 15KHz-30KHz.Overvoltage has dangerous impact for the user .Beside that, frequency must be increased to smooth the operation of devices. So, this report proposes improved high frequency power supply for biomedical application. The electronic circuit was designed that can generate high voltage and high frequency. The main contribution of this work is the simplifications of the circuit by reducing the components. There two main circuits with fewer components are required compared to many circuits in the previous developed model. This is achieved by using the concept of resonant converter. The high voltage only can be generate by tuned the frequency in the range 28-29 KHz. To validate the accuracy of the proposed model, three parts was developed where are low voltage high voltage and SSRC part. Each part will analyzed by comparing simulation result and practical result. It is found that the proposed model is superior when subjected to resonant graph. The range of frequency to developed high voltage 3kV pk-pk is high frequency 29.4 kHz. This modeling method is useful for biomedical application designer and circuit simulator developers who require simple, fast yet accurate model for their power supply.

PC-19: Generation of Homogeneous Glow Dischage Using Pulsed Power Supply
Student: MUHAMAD HAZIQ BIN MD SAID, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Zolkafle bin Buntat

Nowadays, glow discharge has showed great interest in a wide range of application especially in industrial sector. Among the applications of glow discharge are ozone generation, material surface treatment, pollution control and biomedical applications. Glow discharge is a type of plasma which can be generated using dielectric barrier discharge method. The stability issue on generating glow discharge at one atmosphere was comes up as it is found to be unstable as compare to be generated at low pressure condition. It is dependent on the specific gas, the humidity of the gas, dielectric barrier material, structure of discharge electrode, frequency of power supply and gap spacing between electrodes. However, several researchers claim that glow discharge at atmospheric pressure can be stabilize with three simple requirement: (i) use of source frequency over 1 kHz or radio frequency, (ii) insertion of dielectric plate between two metal electrodes and (iii) use of helium dilution gas. High cost of helium gas makes it impractical to be used. Structure of electrode was found to be capable to maintain the stability of glow discharge at atmospheric pressure in any gases. This thesis focus on generation of homogeneous glow discharge using pulsed power supply. Pulsed power supply was belief capable on generating glow discharge without any streamers across entire discharge gap which it is more stable and repetitive as compare to conventional sinusoidal excitation. Experiment was also made to study the effect of glow discharge stabilization when different hole diameter of perforated metal is used.

PC-20: Effect On Humidity On Detected UV Pulse Of Insulator Surface Discharge
Student: MUHAMAD IKHWAN BIN SAHARI, Supervisor: Dr Nouruddeen Bashir Umar (Dr Nor Asiah Muhamad)

High humidity in atmosphere can give significant affect to the operational of transmission line insulator. As moisture in air increasing, humidity on the insulator surface will be dissolved. This will active a surface discharge which emitted the UV pulse radiation. Recently, UV pulses method was proposed as a tool to monitor insulator surface condition. Less studies on detected UV pulse on insulator surface discharge was found compared to leakage current detection in different type of humidity. The main objective of this study is to detect and measure UV pulse signals on transmission insulator with different humidity conditions. The relationships between UV pulse characteristics from different discharge and relative humidity were found. Voltage was varied to produce different discharge intensities on surface of the insulator. The UV pulse characteristic were measured based on different discharge in five different relatives humidity. As result, this study found that different humidity condition produced different type of characteristics of UV pulse discharge. As the humidity increase, the number of UV pulse showed the increasing trend in voltage magnitude. Hence, characteristics of UV pulse waveforms can be exploited to evaluate surface discharge in certain humidity environment.

PC-21: Lightning Protection System for Photovoltaic System
Student: MUHAMAD IZZAT BIN AB GHANI, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Zulkurnain bin Abd. Malek

Lightning is one of the natural phenomenon which occur during thunderstorm. It usually strikes the tallest structure or any unprotected object. For this reason, roof mounted photovoltaic system especially threatened by the risk of damage from lightning. To avoid photovoltaic system damages as a result of flashes, an effective lightning protection system need to be installed properly. Lightning protection system is a complete system designed to minimize physical damage due to the direct lightning strikes. This thesis proposes a design of an isolated external lightning protection system (LPS) for the roof mounted photovoltaic system. The main contribution of this project is about selection of number and height of air termination rods based on protection angle method according to international standard IEC 62305. The protected zone which is in the volume according to the protection angle method and depends on protection level defined in IEC standard. To validate the accuracy of the proposed lightning protection system, four different dimension of roof with roof mounted solar cell is tested. Then, the performance of LPS design for each roof dimension is evaluated with computer software. The simulation result by computer software were presented and discussed. The protection level with height and number of air termination rod is obtained for each roof dimensions. Consequently, this project is recommended that the roof mounted PV system should be protected by installation of air termination rod.

PC-22: Effect of Humidity and Contamination on Harmonic Component in Leakage Current of Glass Insulator
Student: MUHAMAD SHUKOR BIN SULAIMAN, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohamed Afendi bin Mohamed Piah

The insulator is a component that can avoid the flow of electrical charge and does not affected by an electric field. A glass insulator is an object that widely used in electricity supply network especially for an overhead transmission line. Flashovers are the most critical issues in the transmission line system. One of the reasons for flashover to occur is from leakage current that flows on the glass insulators. This phenomenon can make insulation lose its function and its electrical potential. Humidity and contamination are the several factors that can contribute to the flow of leakage current. Thus, the primary purpose of this project is to investigate the correlation between a low-frequency harmonic component of leakage current of glass insulators under various contamination and environmental conditions (humidity). The obtained result is simulated using the MATLAB software, where the result will show the magnitude of low order frequency harmonic component with different contamination level and relative humidity percentage.

PC-23: Effect of Pollution on Detected Ultraviolet Pulses of Insulator Surface Discharges
Student: MUHAMMAD ADLI BIN MOHD NOR, Supervisor: Dr Nouruddeen Bashir Umar (Dr Nor Asiah Muhamad)

Transmission line insulators are one of the most important components in electricity supply system. Condition of the insulators need to be monitor to ensure the possibility of breakdown happen to the system. Normally, before breakdown can be happen in the system, surface discharge will be the triggered. This surface discharger become one of the factor for the flashover in the system. Surface discharge occurred due to contamination level at the vicinity of the insulator. Its also depends on the surrounding environment. The precursor to breakdown and flashover is the flow of high leakage current due to numerous environmental conditions which lead to surface discharges. Various techniques had been used in the past to monitor and predict insulator failure such as leakage current, infrared, acoustics and recently UV signals have been proposed due to the better advantages they have over the rest. However until today, studies on the effect of pollution on the UV signals emitted by insulators during surface discharge are limited. In this study the lab experiment was done to study the UV pulse signal during surface discharge. Analysis on effect of pollution on the UV pulse signals emitted by transmission line insulators during surface discharge also been done. UV sensor are connected to the picoscope. The UV pulse signals are analyze using the PicoScope6 software. Insulator pollution was simulate by study the appeared parameters. It was found that UV pulse signals form can be classified into four parameters which are hissing, pin, cap and severed discharged. Each parameters signals have different transfer function. The differences between the parameters shows that the surface discharges affected the UV pulse signals. Therefore, flashover occurs due to effect of pollution can be prevented by the UV pulse signals

PC-24: Surface Treatment of Activated Carbon Using Cold Plasma for Supercapacitor Applications
Student: MUHAMMAD FADHIL HAFIZ BIN AHMAD PUAD, Supervisor: Mohd Hafizi bin Ahmad

Electric vehicle has become an attraction in automotive world recently. It has been proved that electric vehicle can reduce the usage of fossil fuel by utilizing battery storage system as its primary energy source. Unfortunately, the electric vehicle powered by battery is not practical due to its low specific capacitance and power density. This paper proposes improved performances of resistance and capacitance, hence giving more power to supercapacitor. The main contribution of this work is the application of atmospheric plasma treatment using the concept of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) on activated carbon sheets for supercapacitor. The activated carbon sheets were treated under a plasma discharge generated at various AC power frequency voltages. Also, a two-electrode supercapacitor was constructed using a pair of each treated sheet as the electrodes. As results, the performance of the constructed capacitors were analysed and discussed using constant current charge and discharge method. Finally, it can see that the performances of specific capacitance at activated carbon was 8.7615 (F/g) about 3 times higher than that of untreated activated carbon was 2.8226 (F/g).

PC-25: Multi-Class Air Termination System Design Using SESHIELD
Student: MUHAMMAD FAIZ BIN ROSLAN, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Zulkurnain bin Abd. Malek

Lightning protection system (LPS) is an important system to protect a structure from direct lightning strike that can caused damage. There are two type of LPS design which are isolated and non isolated system. In this case, the LPS design is conducted for isolated system which the LPS are isolated from the structures. The LPS was designed by focusing on the air termination system using rolling sphere method by following the Standard IEC62305 information. This project is simulated using another solution which is SEShield. Then, the SEShield technique is compared with other previous published technique to determine which technique is more effective. This project also determined the length of lightning rod required for different height of buildings. The processes of LPS design are clearly described which include the selection of protection levels for the different height of building. In this case, 4 different lightning rods number are tested for each protection levels. Therefore, the minimum and maximum length of lightning rods required for each protection level can be determined. For information, the number and length of lightning rods affected the cost of air termination system. Based on the results obtained, the number and length of lightning rod can determine which rod number is more effective in term of cost. At the end, the collected data can be a reference whenever this type of buildings wants to install the LPS.

PC-26: The Characteristics of Polyester Coated Carbon Cable under Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Stress
Student: MUHAMMAD HAFIZ BIN MOHD RADZHI, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohd. Muhridza bin Yaacob

Cable is the most crucial element for supplying the electric current from generator to consumer in power system. The material of the cable plays an important role to reduce the power losses, reduce leakage current, and increase the efficiency of power delivered by the generator. Since the early discovery of electricity, copper cable had been used widely. Copper has the characteristic of a good conductor among the non-precious metal. Unfortunately, it resale price that quite expensive and ease to find due to their broad usage have caused many cable theft activities in Malaysia. Thus, the new type of cable must be introduced to replace the copper cable. The cable must have better electrical properties and insulation to be able to use as high voltage cable. In this project, the Polyester Coated Carbon (PCC) cable is suitable alternative to reduce the cable theft due to its low resale price. There are three types of testing were conducted under alternating current (AC) voltage stress upon this cable during the experiments. The result of these experiments is a set of testing data which that will be analyzed in order to determine whether this cable is suitable or not suitable to be used as high voltage cable in power system and also a comparison of performance with 2.5 mm domestic copper cable. From the results, it shows that Polyester Coated Carbon (PCC) cable has higher potential to replace copper cable for the domestic applications.

Student: MUHAMMAD HAFIZI BIN ABD HALIN, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohamed Afendi bin Mohamed Piah

This paper studied on surface discharge characteristics of different samples insulator at different contamination level. The highlight of this project is two different samples were used with three different level of contamination to see the effect of the two variables. Equivalent Salt Deposit Density (ESDD) was used to represent the level of contamination on the surface of sample insulator. ESDD is prepared by follow the British Standard (BS EN 60507:2014) which is the main part are mixture of deionized water and sodium chloride (NaCl). Three level of ESDD were considered, which is light, medium and heavy. In this project, Linear Low-Density Polyethylene unfilled and filled with 5% of Alumina Trihydrate (ATH) as nanofiller were presented. The surface discharge characteristics were tested under inclined plane tracking test method based on the IEC60587:2007 standard. Pico scope and Pico log were connected between computer and experimental setup to capture discharge characteristic such as leakage current and track voltage. The waveform of leakage current and track voltage were displayed in the computer. Meanwhile, the percentage of total harmonic distortion was measured by using block diagram Simulink in Matlab software based on the leakage current waveform captured from Pico scope during experiment.

PC-28: Harmonic Consideration in Analysis of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Circuit for Battery Charging Applications
Student: MUHAMMAD HARITH BIN HASBULLAH, Supervisor: Dr Zuraimy bin Adzis

Piezoelectric is a device that convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa naturally. Nowadays, there are many development regarding to the technology of harvesting energy from piezoelectric material. Netherlands, Japan and Israel are the countries that have developed their own piezoelectric generator in their countries. In this study, this effect is being investigated. To be more specific, the generated energy from piezoelectric material is used for battery charging application. This study concentrated on a simulation of a harvesting circuit which is Bridge-Free AC-DC Rectifier circuit. Bridge-Free AC-DC Rectifier circuit is a circuit that have been designed to simulate the effect of a piezoelectric material to charge a battery. The components of the circuit are vibration source that represented by voltage source, piezoelectric components represented by resistor and capacitor, harvesting inductor, diode and battery. This circuit has been named by Bridge-Free because of it used a single diode in order to rectified the sinusoidal voltage waveform from the source. There are two types of circuit that being focused on which are voltage source with harmonics and voltage source without harmonics. Voltage output, current output, power output and time to charge a battery are being analysed in this simulation. From the simulation, piezoelectric material does charge a battery but with different time to charge it when varies the source frequency. The simulation of this circuit has done by Multisim software.

PC-29: Cyclability of Supercapacitor With Glass Wool As Separator in Sulphuric Acid Electrolyte
Student: MUHAMMAD HAZZIQ BIN GHAFAR, Supervisor: Dr Zulkarnain Ahmad Noorden

Electrical double layer capacitor or known as supercapacitor are widely used in today`s modern application as energy storage system. Supercapacitor has the long cycle life, highest density and capacity can be used to replacing the battery in modern application. By retaining aqueous electrolyte with high concentration, the preeminent supercapacitor can be attained. Nevertheless, conventional cellulose paper separator material inside the supercapacitor unable to withstand high acidic reaction as the material will dissolve due to acidic reaction from the electrolyte. Glass wool separator are more sophisticated corrosive resistance material are used in this project in order to find out the performance of supercapacitor which can replace the conventional separator material. This project analyses the electrochemical characterization and the supercapacitor life-cycle performance by compared the glass wool based supercapacitor with a cellulose paper base supercapacitor. The two-electrode test cell was used to developed the supercapacitor for the purpose of this project by constructed the two carbon electrode sheet between the glass wool separator and immersed with 1mol/dm3 of Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4 inside the test cell. A supercapacitor with cellulose paper separator with the same method also developed using two-electrode test cell in order to compare the performance between it. Cyclic voltammetry and 300 cycles of galvanostatic cyclic charge-discharge were conducted using Gamry Potentiostat 1000 Interface on each test cell. Based the project conducted, glass wool based supercapacitor has better performance in term of electrochemical characterization and life-cycle compared to cellulose paper based supercapacitor.

PC-30: Comparison On the Laboratory and Field Measurement of Octagonal Parallel Flat Antenna
Student: MUHAMMAD NAJMUDDIN BIN ZAKARIA, Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik (Dr Zuraimy Adzis)

Lightning clouds are `charge generators` thus the electric field present to earth changes slowly. While the lightning stroke emanates transient electric field changes as the charges flows to ground, termed as fast field. Therefore, in this study a filter circuit suitable for a single octagonal parallel flat antenna is designed and constructed. A digital filter to eliminate noise from the digital output of such an antenna is also programmed for comparison. Laboratory experiment and field test have been conducted and the data is used to validate the Pspice result. Cloud simulator has been used to conduct the laboratory experiment at the IVAT laboratory. Simulation for both equipment has been done by using Pspice OrCAD 9.2 with the implements of RC circuit for the parallel flat antenna. Based on the simulation, it shows that the peak voltage from lightning waveform depends on the surface area of the antenna. The surface area of the antenna defines its capacitance and thus affecting the peak voltage of the waveform.

PC-31: Designation of Pico-Hydropower In A House
Student: MUHAMMAD SYAFIQ HAKIMI BIN AMIRONZI, Supervisor: Dr Noor Azlinda bte Ahmad

Hydropower can be categorized as a renewable energy such as sunlight, wind biomass and others as long as they do not damaged the surrounding. It generates the electricity from mechanical energy as the water flow through the pipeline and rotates the shaft by striking the blade of the turbine. Hydropower in a house is implemented as an alternative power supply to back up a house in blackout condition. In Malaysia, sometimes Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) announced the substation power will be off about 2 to 3 hours to do the maintenance or upgrading system. Thus, hydropower in a house can be implemented to generate the power supply during the maintenance procedure. Fabricating a hydropower in a house needs a motor pump, an alternator, blades with shaft and water. The water pump which is used to cycle the water, is built to have a 0.5 Horsepower (HP), and water flow speed of 35 L/min, which assisted by the alternator to generate electricity. Hydropower will be implemented as a cross-flow turbine type due to an additional force which is gravitational force. Gravitational force will increase the flow of output water in order to strikes the blade strongly. Fabricate and design hydropower in a house is successfully functioning, and it can supply the power to the water pump and home appliances.

PC-32: The Effect of Water Absorption on the Breakdown Strength of Nanocomposites Filled With Nanosilica
Student: NOOR AZZEERA BINTI KASSIM, Supervisor: Dr Lau Kwan Yiew

Nowadays, there are many types of insulation is being used and one of the material that is beginning to gain interest is polymer nanocomposites. The breakdown strength of polymer nanocomposites may change with the addition of nanofiller even though the samples are fabricated properly. This study describes the effect of water absorption to the breakdown strength characteristic of 80% high density polyethylene (HDPE) with 20% low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites filled with different weight percentage (wt%) of nanosilica (SiO2), i.e., 0wt%, 1wt% and 5wt%. The materials were mixed and heated simultaneously at 140°C followed by hot press pressing. The immersion of samples in deionised water and breakdown voltage measurements is done at room temperature. The ASTM D149 standard is used to conduct the breakdown voltage test under DC step voltage of 1kV every 20 seconds. From the result obtained from the experiments, it can be seen that the breakdown strength of the sample with higher weight percentage (wt%) of nanosilica is lower compared with the unfilled sample. The breakdown strength of the same weight percentage (%wt) but different period of immersion in deionised water is also changed. Apart from that, the longer the period of time of immersion in deionised water the breakdown strength of the samples will be lower for all variation of weight percentage (%wt).

PC-33: Design and Development of a Simple Atmospheric Pressure Room Temperature Air Plasma Needle for Dentistry
Student: NOR SALEHAH BINTI MAT YASSIM, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Zolkafle bin Buntat

This project has been conducted to verify the successfully operation of a simple atmospheric pressure room-temperature air plasma needle develop for dentistry uses. This plasma needle will be designed by using room air as working gas instead of noble gas such as helium, argon and else. The purpose developing this needle for dentistry in order to replace the common technique use in carries treatment process. Current techniques available at dentistry are drilling mechanism and laser technique which is damage the teeth structure. Thus, this project can replace those techniques in killing bacterial such as Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). These bacteria are the the most important microorganism for causing dental caries. First part of this project focussed on designing the plasma needle suitable for dentistry usage. Thus for second part, the plasma needle designed was tested using the circuit to produce the plasma. Thus, if successful, plasma emitted at the tip of needle.

PC-34: A Study On Grounding System Performance For Different Types Of Soil Using Bentonite As Ground Enhancement Material
Student: NUR HANIS SHUHADA BINTI ABU HASIM, Supervisor: Dr Noor Azlinda bte Ahmad

The main purpose of this study is to study the performance of grounding system for different type of soils with enhancement of bentonite as an additive material. In this study, two types of soil which are laterite and peat soils are treated with different amount of bentonites such as 50g, 150g, and 250g. The different amount of bentonites added to the soils is used to determine the effect of bentonite to the soil resistivity reduction. Furthermore, this study focuses on which soil work best with bentonite in reducing the soil resistivity either laterite soil or peat soil. The study was conducted using Wenner Arrangement method. The data for each test sample was collected daily in one week period of time using soil resistance measuring instrument, ABEM Terrameter SAS 300C. The result of this study shows that bentonite does not give a prominent effect on the grounding system performance. The amount of bentonite added to the soil also does not show an obvious soil resistivity reduction.

PC-35: A Simulation Analysis on Reducing the Effect of Direct Lightning Current on Human Body
Student: NUR HAZIRAH AIDA BINTI MOHAMAD HASHIM, Supervisor: Dr Zuraimy bin Adzis

Lightning incidents are characterized by an extremely high current and very short exposure period. Lightning can injure its victim through a direct hit, contact effect, a side splash or ground strike. However, direct lightning strikes infrequently result to death. Wolfram Mathematica and System Modeler was used to simulate the incident of direct lightning strike to human body. Variations of the human body model impedance were considered to contemplate different body surface resistance of the victim due to the weather. Adjustment to human body models were made to simulate different scenarios of lightning-human incident. Result shows that a single lightning current impulse can be split, at least into two current paths to the ground. However, by considering the stray capacitance effect, the lightning current flow through human body is reduced. Thus, this proved that the direct lightning strike will not bring death to humans. Furthermore, the project had shown the availability of human body model to simulate different scenarios of lightning-human accident which cannot be done through actual experiment.

PC-36: Dielectric Properties of Mineral Oil Based Nanofluids
Student: NURHAZWAN HAZIQ BIN AHMAD NAZRI, Supervisor: Mohd Hafizi bin Ahmad

Mineral oil is widely used as a transformer insulation system. However, the performance of insulation system will decrease because of the degradation of mineral oil. Based on recent study, the dielectric properties of mineral oil can be improved by adding a nanoparticles with a suitable concentration. Thus, the purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of nanoparticles to the dielectric properties of mineral oil. Nanoparticles that used for this research were alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), and silica (SiO2) with 0.01wt%, 0.05wt% and 0.1wt%. In this work, the mixture of mineral oil and nanoparticles was synthesized using two-step method. Also, AC breakdown voltage test and tangent delta test were conducted to investigate the dielectric properties of mineral oil based nanofluids. Breakdown voltage was the maximum voltage that the insulation can withstand before breakdown occurs and tangent delta test was to determine the quality of the mineral oil. The obtained results shows that the nanoparticles have led to positive impact on dielectric properties of mineral oil. It can improve the breakdown voltage and decrease the tangent delta of mineral oil. The value of tangent delta for 0.05wt% TiO2 + Mineral Oil was 0.0077 when 2KV was injected. While for pure mineral oil the value of tangent delta was 0.110. The lower the value of tangent delta the higher the quality of mineral oil. However, to synthesis the mineral oil based nanofluids still remain challenging.

PC-37: Analysis on Heat Transfer Distribution of Grounding System using Finite Element Method
Student: NURUL HUDA BINTI RAZALI, Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik (Dr Zuraimy Adzis)

Grounding system is very important to buildings as means of protection for human and property. The energy of the lightning strike will be diverted to ground in a very short period of time. This report aims to analyse the heat transfer distribution in lightning grounding system. How the electrode function to disperse the thermal energy to the ground helps protect the building from damage. The research utilizes the Finite Element Method on Joule Heating physics to represent the behaviour of heat transfer within the grounding rod. The grounding system was modeled with copper and will be replaced with three other materials as an electrode to compare each performance in 2-dimension. Grounding system performance not only depends on the effectiveness of the electrodes, but the resistivity of the soil. Simulation was done on Comsol Multiphysics to observe the performance of heat transfer of each electrode to the soil by varying the types of material used for electrode. Result from simulation shows that heat is distributed to the soil is the best with copper.

PC-38: Electric Field Analysis on Slow and Fast Lightning Sensor Using QuickField
Student: NURUL IDAYU BINTI MOHD SHAH, Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik (Dr Zuraimy Adzis)

Lightning is a natural phenomenon that occurs mostly in tropical region as Malaysia. It releases a high current discharge which radiates electromagnetic field. The main purpose of this study is to model the parallel plate antenna`s electrical field plot across its plates. With the plot, depending on the radiated an estimation of the lightning current is computed, to be compared with laboratory and field tests results. QuickField software professional version is used to accomplish the objectives with by using analysis on Finite Element Method. A diagram is modelled into the software and analyse by building the mesh. This report will validate the simulation result with the Lab Test and Field Test respectively to determine the electric field produced by the sensors. It can be found that the QuickField resulted similar data with the two test conducted.

Student: NURUL IZZATIE BINTI GHAZALI, Supervisor: Dr Zulkarnain Ahmad Noorden

This paper uses the application of high voltage to carbon electrodes for supercapacitors. The main approach is by using the cold-plasma treatment which is very helpful in improving the characteristics of carbon electrodes. The carbon electrodes are represented in form of activated carbon sheets which is then undergoes treatment. In order to treat it with cold-plasma technique, the activated carbon was placed in between two dielectric layers, inside a reaction chamber. To carry out the treatment, it needs to be treated under certain period with specific requirements. It was found that, cold-plasma treatment affects the characteristics of carbon samples. The I-V characteristics was constructed and the material studies were made. It is believed that, with the use of treated activated carbon sheets will increase the performance of supercapacitors in future.

PC-40: Tracking and Erosion resistance of Aging Pure Silicone Rubber
Student: NURUL SYAFIKA BINTI ZULKIFLE, Supervisor: Prof Madya Dr Mohamed Afendi bin Mohamed Piah

Electrical tracking is the progressive formation of electrically conducting paths which are produced on the surface of a solid insulating material. It is a result of surface discharge activity, which is associated with the flow of leakage current on the surface of insulators under wet and contaminated conditions. Arcs generated from the surface discharge phenomenon cause the polymer material to burn and successively form the carbonized track. Therefore, studies on the factors that affect the flow of leakage current have become imperative. Polymeric Insulator are acquiring acceptability all over the world rapidly because of their advantages over glass and porcelain insulators. Furthermore, a major restriction of polymeric materials performances is surface aging. Most of the high voltage insulators are being used in outdoor application and when demonstrated to the environmental condition, particle such as dirt, chemical and dust will attach to the surface of the insulators. Thus in this project, a pure silicone rubber material was used as the sample of polymeric material. The tracking test was conducted to study the effect of the aging time of silicone rubber when exposed to environmental outdoor on the length of carbon track, its effect on the leakage current, as well as the relationship between aging time and the carbon track development. In this project silicone rubber with different aging time was tested based on IEC 60587 inclined plane tracking at 3.0 kV. This project would serve to identify the performance of silicone rubber material when it is exposed to several aging time which are for one, two and three month. Also the original sample was tested. The result shows that the original sample exhibits the best electrical tracking resistance, proven by the lowest average leakage current and carbon track propagation.

Student: SITI HAWA BINTI NOOR AIDY, Supervisor: Dr Zuraimy bin Adzis

Wind power is renewable energy that may be harnessed by wind turbines. However, the wind turbines are prone to lightning strike because they are usually exposed to the open air. The purpose of this research paper is basically to observe the physical effects of direct lightning strike on vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) blades of different composite materials. The importance of the experiment is to find the most suitable material to be used as the main component of VAWT blades in its resistance against direct lightning strike. The objectives of the research are to conduct lightning impulse test on various materials and construction of VAWT blades and observe the physical damages with different impulse amplitudes. The results would tabulate the material with the least damages. For the experiment to be conducted, Marx Impulse generator is used. Various values of voltage were being injected to the samples from 10kV up to 120kV. 17 samples made from different composite materials had been test for withstand against high voltage impulse. As a conclusion from this research, the suitable material that can withstand high voltage impulse is made from fiberglass.

Student: SITI NUR ATIKAH BINTI IBRAHIM, Supervisor: Dr Zulkarnain Ahmad Noorden

Measuring of return voltage is the one of testing that common use to testing the insulation level. A lot of research that have been made by a scholars on return voltage measuring. The researcher are take a seriously about this method because of insulation system inside the equipment experiences aging in its characteristics and that may cause the high risk. Based on reading, the polarization time for insulation material in within minute and depolarization is in seconds. Because of the current system “RVM 5462” have a limited ratio of polarization and depolarization, in this project, the new laboratory-based system was introduced to test insulation level by using relay as a main switch and will be controlled by Arduino. The constructed of dummy circuit that represent of the insulation level such as transformed oil will be connected to main switch , relay. The system was be verified by using Multisim and then constructed equipment of laboratory-based. All the parameters and procedure were discussed.

PC-43: Feasibility Studies on the Development of a Hybrid PV,Wind,Battery System for a Remote Island in Sabah Malaysia
Student: SITTI RAHMAH BINTI HAMZAH, Supervisor: Dr Nouruddeen Bashir Umar (Dr Nor Asiah Muhamad)

In Malaysia, trend showing increasing growth on renewable energy. This is due to the electrical demand. Furthermore, the depletion of fossil fuel and reducing of oil dependency for electricity generation are now getting attention from many people. Indeed, the large scales of fossil fuel power plant are mostly in metropolitan area and most of remote areas rely on diesel generator. The purpose of this study is to simulate feasibility design of hybrid PV-wind battery standalone system at remote island (Mabul Island) in Sabah Malaysia. The aims are to study economical cost analysis of hybrid PV-Wind standalone system and trend of electrical consumption. This study also had look into the different of greenhouse gas emission between diesel generator and renewable energy system. In this project, HOMER software is used for designing and analyzing hybrid power system. This software helps determine how variable resources such as wind and solar can be optimally integrated into hybrid system. The result shows that PV with battery is the most suitable feasibility design of hybrid system for the remote island. The cost per kWh to generate electricity of the remote island with load demand 1,097.083 kWh using this standalone PV with battery is RM 1.1412/kWh. The total PV that will be implemented in this feasibility design is 769 panel with 40 batteries and consume the area of the island in 553.68 m² from 20000 m² of the total area of the island. Wind energy was found not practical to be install in Malaysia since the power that can be harvested is very low with average wind is only about 3.19 m/s.

PC-44: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blades Direct Lightning Strike Waveform Analysis
Student: VANESSA ANAK PHILIP, Supervisor: Dr Zuraimy bin Adzis

Lightning strike has become a major concern to man made structures since decades ago. The aims of this project are to conduct lightning impulse test on various materials and construction of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) blades, to observe physical damage based on different amplitude of impulse voltage applied and to relate the waveforms amplitude with the damage observed in order to find the least damaged blade. Several types of composites and constructions of VAWT blades are tested in Institut Voltan Arus Tinggi (IVAT) by injecting direct lightning strike impulse voltage onto the surface of the blades. A fixture is constructed as a base to hold the samples and artificial lightning is generated by Marx Impulse Generator to emulate the actual direct lightning strike. The voltage waveforms are recorded using PicoScope 6 software and then the waveforms are digitally filtered by the averaging method in the Microsoft Excel. Almost all the samples tested excluding Sample 8A and 8B have a bullet-shot effect on the surface of the blades. In a nutshell, the higher the amplitude recorded by PicoScope 6, more severe is the damage observed on the surface on the blades except for Sample 8A and 8B because they are purely made from fiberglass.

PC-45: Effect of Epoxy Amount on Activated Carbon Electrode for Supercapacitor
Student: ZULARIF FIKRI BIN ATEMAN, Supervisor: Dr Zulkarnain Ahmad Noorden

Supercapacitor consists of three main parts, which are a pair of carbon electrodes, electrolyte and separator. The carbon electrode is normally prepared from activated carbon powder as the raw material. Activated carbon is widely used as the main mixture of the carbon electrodes. The binder agent that used in this study is epoxy because it strong binding agent. Epoxy also a good electrical conductivity. This project aims on the fabrication of activated carbon electrode in a sheet form with the use of epoxy as the additive material. The activated carbon powder and the epoxy were systematically mixed in an acetone solution. The epoxy in this mixture acts as the binder agent while the acetone acts as the catalyst solution to make the mixture become into slurry form. Epoxy is required to provide strong mechanical strength of the fabricated carbon sheet for the electrodes. The optimum amount of binder was determined from the project and it gives the best performance of the carbon electrodes for supercapacitor application. The test was conduct using test cell to evaluate the performance of supercapacitor.

PC-46: Effects of Test Parameters on the Breakdown Strength of Melinex Film
Student: SITI NURNABILA BINTI PUZI, Supervisor: Dr Lau Kwan Yiew

PC-47: Experimental Investigation of Mineral Oil and Vegetative Oil Due To Accelerated Thermal Ageing as Electrical Insulation in Power Transformer
Student: ABDUL HAKIM BIN ISMAIL, Supervisor: Dr Yanuar Zulardiansyah Arief

Important Dates

Abstract Submission
24th April 2016

Supervisor Approval Submission
8th May 2016

Acceptance Notification
10th May 2016

24th May 2016

Final Paper Submission for Jurnal Elektrika
30th May 2016

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